zxc ® 23-Сен-2012 21:52

Pounders Marine diesel engines and gas turbines 9 EDITION


Year: 2009
Author: D. Woodyard
Language: english
Publisher: ELSEVIER Sabre Foundation
Series: NINTH EDITION
ISBN: 978-0-7506-8984-7
Format: PDF
Quality: OCR without errors
Number of pages: 905
Description: First published 1984 Reprinted 1991, 1992 Seventh edition 1998 Reprinted 1999 Eighth edition 2004 Ninth edition 2009
Major developments in two-stroke and four-stroke engine designs for propulsion and auxiliary power drives in the 5 years since the publication of the eighth edition of Pounder’s Marine Diesel Engines call for another update.
This ninth edition reflects the generic and specific advances made by marine engine designers and specialists in support technologies—notably turbocharging, fuel treatment, emissions reduction and automation systems— which are driven by: ship designer demands for more compactness and lower weight; ship-owner demands for higher reliability, serviceability and overall operational economy; and shipbuilder demands for lower costs and easier installation procedures.
A historical perspective logs the nautical milestones over the first century of marine diesel technology, which closed with the emergence of electronically controlled low-speed designs paving the path for future so-called ‘Intelligent Engines’. Development progress with these designs and operating experience with the escalating number in service are reported in this new edition.
Since the last edition, increasing interest in dual-fuel (DF) and gas engines for marine and offshore industry applications is reflected in an expanded chapter.
The specification of DF medium-speed diesel machinery for LNG carrier new- building projects in 2002 marked the ousting of steam turbine propulsion from its last bastion in commercial shipping. A growing number of these DF-electric installations are now entering service, alongside direct-coupled low-speed engine-powered LNG carriers equipped with boil-off gas reliquefaction plant.
Controls on exhaust gas emissions—particularly nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and smoke—continue to tighten regionally and internationally, dictating further responses from engine designers exploiting common rail fuel systems, emulsified fuel, direct water injection and charge air humidification. These and other solutions, including selective catalytic reduction and exhaust gas recirculation systems, are detailed in an extended chapter.
Also extended is the chapter on fuels, lube oils and the problems of contamination, which includes information on low sulphur fuels, new cylinder and system lubricants, and cylinder oil-feed system developments.
Marine gas turbines, specified for some cruise ship and fast ferry propulsion projects from the late 1990s, have seen their competitiveness undermined by rising fuel prices in recent years. The relevant chapter, introduced in the last edition, has been revised to cover design refinements and significant installations.
The traditional core of this book—reviews of the current programmes of the leading low-, medium- and high-speed engine designers—has been thoroughly updated. Details of all new designs and major modifications to established models VII

Preface

Preface
introduced since the last edition are provided, along with service experience with the most popular designs. Technically important engines no longer in production but still encountered at sea justify their continued coverage.
In preparing the new edition the author expresses again his gratitude for the groundwork laid by the late C.C. Pounder and to the editors of the sixth edition, his late friend and colleague Chris Wilbur and Don Wight (whose contributions are respectively acknowledged at the end of sections or chapters by C.T.W. and D.A.W.).
In an industry generous for imparting information on new developments and facilitating visits, special thanks are again due to MAN Diesel, Wartsila Corporation, Caterpillar Marine Power Systems, ABB Turbo Systems, the major classification societies, and the leading marine lube oil groups. Thanks again also to my wife Shelley Woodyard for her support and assistance in this project.
Finally, the author hopes that this edition, like its predecessors, will continue to provide a useful reference for marine engineers ashore and at sea, enginebuilders and ship operators.
Doug Woodyard

Introduction: A Century of Diesel Progress

Introduction: A Century of Diesel Progress
Close to a century after the entry into service of Selandia, generally regarded as the world’s first oceangoing motor vessel, the diesel engine enjoys almost total dominance in merchant ship propulsion markets. Mainstream sectors have long been surrendered by the steam turbine, ousted by low- and medium- speed engines from large container ships, bulk carriers, VLCCs and cruise liners. Even steam’s last remaining bastion in the newbuilding lists—the LNG carrier—has been breached by dual-fuel medium-speed diesel engine designs arranged to burn the cargo boil-off gas as well as by direct-coupled low-speed diesel engines.
The remorseless rise of the diesel engine at the expense of steam reciprocating and turbine installations was symbolized in 1987 by the steam-to-diesel conversion of Cunard’s prestigious cruise liner Queen Elizabeth 2. Her turbine and boiler rooms were ignominiously gutted to allow the installation of a 95 600 kW diesel-electric plant.
The revitalized QE2’s propulsion plant was based on nine 9-cylinder L58/64 medium-speed four-stroke engines from MAN B&W Diesel which provided a link with the pioneering Selandia: the 1912-built twin-screw 7400 dwt cargo/ passenger ship was powered by two Burmeister & Wain eight-cylinder four-stroke engines (530 mm bore/ 730 mm stroke), each developing 920 kW at 140 rev/min. An important feature was the effective and reliable direct-reversing system.
Progress in raising specific output over the intervening 70 years was underlined by the 580 mm bore/640 mm stroke design specified for the QE2 retrofit: each cylinder has a maximum continuous rating of 1213 kW.
Selandia was built by the Burmeister & Wain yard in Copenhagen for Denmark’s East Asiatic Company and, after trials in February 1912, successfully completed a 20 000 mile round voyage between the Danish capital and the Far East (Figure I.1). The significance of the propulsion plant was well appreciated at the time. On her first arrival in London, the ship was inspected by Sir Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty; and Fiona, a sister ship delivered four months later by the same yard, so impressed the German Emperor that it was immediately arranged for the Hamburg Amerika Line to buy her.
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