Val Ryman ® 25-Июн-2018 01:43

Ninety percent of everything: Inside shipping, the invisible industry that puts clothes on your back, gas in your car, and food on your plate


Year: 2013
Language: english
Author: Rose George
Genre: History
Publisher: Metropolitan Books: Henry Holt and Company
Edition: First
ISBN: 9780805096040
Format: EPUB
Quality: eBook
Pages count: 304
Description: Rose George is a freelance investigative journalist who aims to expose what is invisible, ignored, and taken for granted.
George refined her investigative approach in her second book project, when she investigated the global public health crisis of human sewage. She identified what was ignored but important, focused on key relevant data, and analysed the problems.
For her third book project, George looked at the working conditions of seafarers, the disappearance of national merchant marines, and the economic disaster that is the shipping industry in the 21st century.
In 2010 George was writer-in-residence with Maersk Line, sailing on Maersk Kendal (LOA 299 m; 6,500 TEU; UK-flagged) from Felixstowe to Port Klang. She also spent a week on Portuguese frigate Vasco da Gama (LOA 142 m; 100 mm cannon, plus missiles and torpedoes) on anti-pirate duty and talked to the Mission to Seafarers in Immingham and the International Transport Workers Federation (ITF) at Birkenhead.
Ninety percent of everything, George's third book, was also published in Britain under the name Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside shipping, the invisible industry that brings you ninety percent of everything .
George's critique of the shipping industry and its impact on seafarers and the environment focuses on comparing conditions in 2010 to the recent past. She offers data from 2009-11, but no solutions for the future.
Metropolitian residents are blind to shipping, even though ships carry 90 percent of goods because they're cheaper and less environmentally damaging than trucks on highways. Cargo wharves have been moved out of city centres, so ships are out of sight, out of mind, and out of the imagination of most. The shipping news disappeared from mainstream media decades back, the names and sizes of ships are seldom mentioned, and the impact of piracy only mentioned in movies and after intense events.
The national merchant marine fleets that served maritime nations in times of past wars have all but disappeared, replaced by commercial operations running on thin margins with multinational crew on short-term contracts. Flags of convenience dominate, flying over 68 percent of hulls. Costs have driven the change to flags of convenience: a US flag would multiply the cost of sailing under a flag of convenience 2.7 times.
Chasing profit, even thin profit, has led to exploitation of seafarers and environmental damage. Cheap bunker fuel and its sooty exhaust, and propeller noise, have had measurable effects.
Exploitation of seafarers is an old story, but one that continues. Shorthanded crew are fatigued and overworked. Even Maersk Line ships only budgeted (in 2010) US$7 a day for the meals of each crew. In 2009, delinquent ship-owners abandoned 57 ships and their 647 seafarers. Only the ITF and well-meaning charities and trusts do anything significant to help. Of the 4 million seafarers, more than 30 percent are Filipino because of their good English and low cost, and only 2 percent are female. About 2,000 seafarers die each year.

Contents

Introduction
1. Embarkation
2. Aboard
3. Harbor
4. Open Sea
5. Sea and Suez
6. High-Risk Area
7. No-Man’s-Land
8. Sanctuary
9. Animals Beneath
10. Rescue
11. Disembark
Notes
Further Reading
Acknowledgments
Оценка: 5 / 5 (Голосов: 10)
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