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Introduction to Marine Engineering. Second Edition


Year: 2003
Author: D. A. Taylor
Publisher: , MSc, BSc, CENG, FIMarE, FRINA Marine Consultant, Harbour Craft Services Ltd, Hong Kong Formerly Senior Lecturer in Marine Technology, Hong Kong Polytechic University
ISBN: 0 7506 2530 9
Format: PDF
Quality: OCR without errors
Number of pages: 383
Description: Progress has been made in many areas of marine engineering since the first edition of this book was published. A greater emphasis is now being placed on the cost-effective operation of ships. This has meant more fuel-efficient engines, less time in port and the need for greater equipment reliability, fewer engineers and more use of automatically operated machinery.
The marine engineer is still, however, required to understand the working principles, construction and operation of all the machinery items in a ship. The need for correct and safe operating procedures is as great as ever. There is considerably more legislation which must be understood and complied with, for example in relation to the discharging of oil, sewage and even black smoke from the funnel. Engineers must now be more environmentally aware of the results of their activities and new material is included in this revised edition dealing with exhaust emissions, environmentally friendly refrigerants and fire extinguishants.
The aim of this book is to simply explain the operation of all the ship’s machinery to an Engineer Cadet or Junior Engineer who is embarking on a career at sea. The emphasis is always upon correct, safe operating procedures and practices at all times.
The content has been maintained at a level to cover the syllabuses of the Class 4 and Class 3 Engineer’s Certificates of Competency and the first two years of the Engineer Cadet Training Scheme. Additional material is included to cover the Engineering knowledge syllabus of the Master’s Certificate.
Anyone with an interest in ships’ machinery or a professional involvement in the shipping business should find this book informative and useful.

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the many firms, organisations and individuals who have provided me with assistance and material during the writing of this book.
To my many colleagues and friends who have answered numerous queries and added their wealth of experience, I am most grateful.
The following firms have contributed various illustrations and information on their products, for which I thank them.
Aalborg Vaerft A/S AFA Minerva Alfa-Laval Ltd Angus Fire Armour Ltd Asea Brown Boveri Ltd B & W Engineering Babcock-Bristol Ltd Babcock Power Ltd Beaufort Air—Sea Equipment Ltd Blohm and Voss AG Brown Bros. 8c Co. Ltd Caird 8c Rayner Ltd Cammell Laird Shipbuilders Chadburn Bloctube Ltd Clarke Chapman Marine Combustion Engineering Marine Power Systems Comet Marine Pumps Ltd Conoflow Europa BV Deep Sea Seals Ltd Doncasters Moorside Ltd Donkin 8c Co. Ltd Doxford Engines Ltd Evershed & Vignoles Ltd
Flakt Ltd (SF Review)
Foster Wheeler Power Products Ltd
Frydenbo Mek. Verksted GEC Turbine Generators Ltd, Industrial 8c Marine Steam Turbine Division Glacier Metal Co. Ltd Grandi Motori Trieste Graviner Ltd M. W. Grazebook Ltd Hall-Thermotank International Ltd
Hall-Thermotank Products Ltd Hamworthy Combustion Systems Ltd
Hamworthy Engineering Ltd Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft John Hastie of Greenock Ltd Richard Klinger Ltd Maag Gearwheel Co. Ltd McGregor Centrex Ltd H. Maihak AG
Mather 8c Platt (Marine Dept.) Ltd
Michell Bearings Ltd Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd The Motor Ship NEI-APE Ltd New Sulzer Diesel Ltd Nifejungner AB, A/S Norsk Elektrisk 8c Brown Boveri Nu-Swift International Ltd Peabody Holmes Ltd Pyropress Engineering Co. Ltd Scanpump AB SEMT Pielstick Serck Heat Transfer Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering International Siebe Gorman 8c Co. Ltd Spirax Sarco Ltd Stone Manganese Marine Ltd
Taylor Instrument Ltd Thom, Lamont 8c Co. Ltd Thompson Cochran Boilers Ltd The Trent Valve Co. Ltd Tungsten Batteries Ltd Vokes Ltd
Vulkan Kupplungs-U.
Getriebebau B. Hackforth GmbH 8c Co. KG Walter Kdde & Co. Ltd Weir Pumps Ltd The Welin Davit 8c Engineering Co. Ltd Weser AG
Wilson Elsan Marine International
Worthington-Simpson Ltd Young and Cunningham Ltd

Contents

1 Ships and machinery 1
2 Diesel engines 8
3 Steam turbines and gearing 53
4 Boilers 73
5 Feed systems 99
6 Pumps and pumping systems 112
7 Auxiliaries 134
8 Fuel oils, lubricating oils and their treatment 150
9 Refrigeration, air conditioning and ventilation 163
10 Deck machinery and hull equipment 180
11 Shafting and propellers 200
12 Steering gear 211
13 Fire fighting and safety 231
14 Electrical equipment 253
15 Instrumentation and control 279
16 Engineering materials 326
17 Watchkeeping and equipment operation 341
Appendix SI units, engineering terms, power measurement,
fuel estimation and engineering drawing 349
Index 365
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Chapter 1 - Ships and machinery

As an introduction to marine engineering, we might reasonably begin by taking an overall look at the ship. The various duties of a marine engineer all relate to the operation of the ship in a safe, reliable, efficient and economic manner. The main propulsion machinery installed will influence the machinery layout and determine the equipment and auxiliaries installed. This will further determine the operational and maintenance requirements for the ship and thus the knowledge required and the duties to be performed by the marine engineer.
Ships
Ships are large, complex vehicles which must be self-sustaining in their environment for long periods with a high degree of reliability. A ship is the product of two main areas of skill, those of the naval architect and the marine engineer. The naval architect is concerned with the hull, its construction, form, habitability and ability to endure its environment. The marine engineer is responsible for the various systems which propel and operate the ship. More specifically, this means the machinery required for propulsion, steering, anchoring and ship securing, cargo handling, air conditioning, power generation and its distribution. Some overlap in responsibilities occurs between naval architects and marine engineers in areas such as propeller design, the reduction of noise and vibration in the ship’s structure, and engineering services provided to considerable areas of the ship.
A ship might reasonably be divided into three distinct areas: the cargo-carrying holds or tanks, the accommodation and the machinery space. Depending upon the type each ship will assume varying proportions and functions. An oil tanker, for instance, will have the cargo-carrying region divided into tanks by two longitudinal bulkheads and several transverse bulkheads. There will be considerable quantities of cargo piping both above and below decks. The general cargo ship will have various cargo holds which are usually the full width of the vessel and formed by transverse bulkheads along the ship’s length. Cargo- handling equipment will be arranged on deck and there will be large hatch openings closed with steel hatch covers. The accommodation areas in each of these ship types will be sufficient to meet the requirements for the ship’s crew, provide a navigating bridge area and a communications centre. The machinery space size will be decided by the particular machinery installed and the auxiliary equipment necessary. A passenger ship, however, would have a large accommodation area, since this might be considered the ‘cargo space’. Machinery space requirements will probably be larger because of air conditioning equipment, stabilisers and other passenger related equipment.
Machinery
Arrangement
Three principal types of machinery installation are to be found at sea today. Their individual merits change with technological advances and improvements and economic factors such as the change in oil prices. It is intended therefore only to describe the layouts from an engineering point of view. The three layouts involve the use of direct-coupled slow-speed diesel engines, medium-speed diesels with a gearbox, and the steam turbine with a gearbox drive to the propeller.
A propeller, in order to operate efficiently, must rotate at a relatively low speed. Thus, regardless of the rotational speed of the prime mover, the propeller shaft must rotate at about 80 to lOOrev/min. The slow-speed diesel engine rotates at this low speed and the crankshaft is thus directly coupled to the propeller shafting. The medium-speed diesel engine operates in the range 250—750rev/min and cannot therefore be direei' y coupled to the propeller shaft. A gearbox is used to provide a low-speed drive for the propeller shaft. The steam turbine rotates at a very high speed, in the order of 6000rev/min. Again, a gearbox must be used to provide a low-speed drive for the propeller shaft.
Slow-speed diesel
A cutaway drawing of a complete ship is shown in Figure 1.1. Here, in addition to the machinery space, can be seen the structure of the hull, the cargo tank areas together with the cargo piping and the deck machinery. The compact, complicated nature of the machinery installation can clearly be seen, with the two major items being the main engine and the cargo heating boiler.
Ships and machinery
The more usual plan and elevation drawings of a typical slow-speed diesel installation are shown in Figure 1.2.
A six-cylinder direct-drive diesel engine is shown in this machinery arrangement. The only auxiliaries visible are a diesel generator on the upper flat and an air compressor below. Other auxiliaries within the machinery space would include additional generators, an oily-water separator, an evaporator, numerous pumps and heat exchangers. An auxiliary boiler and an exhaust gas heat exchanger would be located in the uptake region leading to the funnel. Various workshops and stores and the machinery control room will also be found on the upper flats.
Geared medium-speed diesel
Four medium-speed (500rev/min) diesels are used in the machinery layout of the rail ferry shown in Figure 1.3. The gear units provide a twin-screw drive at 170rev/min to controllable-pitch propellers. The gear units also power take-offs for shaft-driven generators which provide all power requirements while at sea.
The various pumps and other auxiliaries are arranged at floor plate level in this minimum-height machinery space. The exhaust gas boilers and uptakes are located port and starboard against the side shell plating.
Waste combustion plant
A separate generator room houses three diesel generator units, a waste combustion plant and other auxiliaries. The machinery control room is at the forward end of this room.
Steam turbine
Twin cross-compounded steam turbines are used in the machinery layout of the container ship, shown in Figure 1.4. Only part plans and sections are given since there is a considerable degree of symmetry in the layout. Each turbine set drives, through a double reduction gearbox with separate thrust block, its own fixed-pitch propeller. The condensers are located beneath each low-pressure turbine and are arranged for scoop circulation at full power operation and axial pump circulation when manoeuvring.
At the floorplate level around the main machinery are located various main engine and ship’s services pumps, an auxiliary oil-fired boiler and a sewage plant. Three diesel alternators are located aft behind an acoustic screen.
The 8.5 m flat houses a turbo-alternator each side and also the forced-draught fans for the main boilers. The main boiler feed pumps and other feed system equipment are also located around this flat. The two main boilers occupy the after end of this flat and are arranged for roof firing. Two distillation plants are located forward and the domestic water supply units are located aft.
The control room is located forward of the 12.3m flat and contains the main and auxiliary machinery consoles. The main switchboard and group starter boards are located forward of the console, which faces into the machinery space.
On the 16.2 m flat is the combustion control equipment for each boiler with a local display panel, although control is from the main control room. The boiler fuel heating and pumping module is also located here. The de-aerator is located high up in the casing and silencers for the diesel alternators are in the funnel casing.
Operation and maintenance
The responsibilities of the marine engineer are rarely confined to the machinery space. Different companies have different practices, but usually all shipboard machinery, with the exception of radio equipment, is maintained by the marine engineer. Electrical engineers may be carried on very large ships, but if not, the electrical equipment is also maintained by the engineer.
A broad-based theoretical and practical training is therefore necessary for a marine engineer. He must be a mechanical, electrical, air conditioning, ventilation and refrigeration engineer, as the need arises. Unlike his shore-based opposite number in these occupations, he must also deal with the specialised requirements of a floating platform in a most corrosive environment. Furthermore he must be self sufficient and capable of getting the job done with the facilities at his disposal.
The modern ship is a complex collection of self-sustaining machinery providing the facilities to support a small community for a considerable period of time. To simplify the understanding of all this equipment is the purpose of this book. This equipment is dealt with either as a complete system comprising small items or individual larger items. In the latter case, especially, the choices are often considerable. A knowledge of machinery and equipment operation provides the basis for effective maintenance, and the two are considered in turn in the following chapters.
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