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Electrical Engineering | Tables, Standards, Formulas | 1st English edition


Year: 2006
Language: english
Author: EUROPA-TECHNICAL BOOK SERIES for the electrotechnical, electronic and information technology trades
Publisher: Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Nourney, Vollmer GmbH & Co.KG
ISBN: 978-3-8085-3033-7
Format: PDF
Quality: Scanned pages
Number of pages: 457
Description:
  • Mathematics, Physics, Theory of Circuits, Components 11... 64
  • Technical Documentation, Measuring 65... 120
  • Electrical Installations 121 ... 190
  • Safety, Energy Supply 191 ... 260
  • Information and Communication Technology Systems 261 ... 308
  • Automation, Drive and Control Systems 309 ... 382
  • Materials, Connecting, Joining [ and Bonding 383...414
Preface to the 1st English edition
This edition is based on the 22nd German edition of "Tabellenbuch Elektrotechnik" a leading compendium in German-speaking countries. The English edition addresses professionals in the various fields of electronics such as power and building engineering, field engineering, automation systems, machinery, drive systems, components and other electronic systems. This book is intended to
• prepare professionals for an activity in an international environment and
• help to make the world's leading work processes and standards known outside of the Germanspeaking region.
Despite the harmonization of the most important European standards, local regulations may differ slightly from German standards under certain circumstances, which means that where safety matters are concerned, the user has to check whether any other local regulations exist.
The book is divided into the following main sections focusing on the specified subjects:
• Section M: Formula symbols, units and quantities, mathematical symbols, exponents, unit
mathematics, prefixes. Force, moment of force, motion rules, work, power, heat, charge, voltage,
physics, current, resistance, electric and magnetic field, alternating quantities. Circuits of R,
theory of circuits, L, C, three-phase current, harmonics.
components Semiconductor resistors, diodes, FET, IGBT, bipolar transistors, thyristors.
• Section TM: technical documentation, measuring
General technical drawing. Circuit diagrams, logic sequence control diagrams, preparing documentation, structure of operating instructions. Measuring instruments and systems, pictographs for measuring, measurement in electrical installations.
• Section El: Working in electrical installations, laying of cables, installation circuits, building
electrical management and system engineering, residential building installations. Calcula-
installations tion of cables and wires, lighting engineering.
• Section SE: safety, energy supply
• Section IC: information and communication technology systems
First aid at the workplace, personal protective equipment, signs, symbols and colours for accident prevention, current hazards, protective measures, distributing systems. Types of power stations, transformers, overhead power cables, buried cables, household appliances.
Number systems, codes, Boolean algebra, flip-flops, D/A converters, A/D converters, personal computer PC, operating system Windows, IT networks, components for data networks, ethernet, wireless LAN, ASI bus system, interbus, PROFIBUS, identification systems, connection to the telephone network, internet, aerial systems, satellite systems, broadband communication systems.
• Section AC: Base circuits of amplifiers, rectifiers, triggering circuits for semiconductors, switch-
automation, drive mode power supplies, multivibrators, control relays, programmable logic control-and control lers PLC, programming languages for PLCs, control engineering, electromagnetic
systems contactors, motor protection, automatic control engineering, three-phase motors,
single-phase A.C. motors, D.C. motors, drive systems.
• Section MC: materials, connection, joining and bonding
Periodic table, specific material values, steel standardisation, magnetic materials, insulators, cables and wires, buried cables, connectors, ISO threads, screws, bolts and nuts.
• Section CE: the company and its environment, environmental technology, annex
Organisational structures of companies, teamwork, job planning, cost accounting and key numbers. Projects, skills of electrical specialists, realisation of projects. Environmental terms, hazardous materials, handling of electronic waste products. Standards, subject index, internet addresses.
The publisher and authors would be grateful for any suggestions and constructive comments.

Contents

Fields of learning and relevant sections in this book
Field Description of the field of Main sections in this book,
learning additionally relevant sections
Overview of the fields of learning for electricians (selection)
1 Analysing electrotechnical sys¬ Section M: theory of circuits, components
tems and testing their functions Section TM: technical documentation, measuring
2 Designing and realising electrical Seption El: electrical installations
installations Section TM:technical documentation
3 Analysing and implementing Section AC: control systems
control systems Section M: theory of circuits, components
Section TM:technical documentation
4 Implementing IT systems Section IC: information and communication technology
systems
Section TM: technical documentation
5 Ensuring power supply and Section SE: safety, energy supply
safety of electrical equipment Section TM:technical documentation, measuring
Section MC:materials, connecting, joining and bonding
Section CE: the company and its environment
6 Analysing installations and Section SE: safety, energy supply
testing their safety Section AC: automation and drive systems
7 Programming and implementing Section AC: control systems
plant control systems Section IC: information and communication technology
systems
8 Selecting and integrating drive Section AC: automation, drive and control systems
systems Section TM:technical documentation
Section SE: safety, energy supply
9 Integrating control and com¬ Section AC: control systems
munication systems Section IC: information and communication technology
systems
Section TM:technical documentation, mealuring
10 Commissioning and turning over Section AC: automation and drive systems
automation systems Section CE: the company and its environment
Section TM:technical documentation, measuring
11 Maintaining and optimising Section AC: automation and drive systems
automation systems Section El: electrical installations
Section SE: safety, energy supply
Section CE: environmental technology
Section TM: technical documentation, measuring
12 Designing automation systems Section AC: automation systems
13 Implementing automation Section El: electrical installations
systems Section SE: safety, energy supply
Section CE: environmental technology
Section MC:materials, connecting, joining and bonding
Overview of the fields of learning for electrical tasks in mechatronics
1 Analysing functional relation¬ Section TM:technical documentation
ships in mechatronic systems Section MC: materials, connecting, joining and bonding
3 Installing electrical equipment Section SE: safety, energy supply
under safety aspects Section El: electrical installations
4 Examining power and informa¬ Section AC: automation systems
tion flows in electrical compo¬ Section MC: materials, connecting, joining and bonding
nents
5 Communicating via data proces¬ Section IC: information and communication technology
sing systems systems
8 Designing and implementing Section TM: technical documentation, measuring
mechatronic subsystems Section AC: automation and drive systems
Contents
Section M:
Mathematics, Physics, Theory of Circuits,
Components.......................................... 11
Symbols in this book................................ 12
Subscripts and signs for formula symbols
in this book........................................ 13
Quantities and units ............................... 14
Mathematical symbols ............................... 16
Exponents, unit prefixes, logarithms, calculations
according to the rule of three...................... 17
Angles, trigonometric functions, percentage
calculation ........................................ 18
Relationships between trigonometric functions . . 19
Lengths and areas................................... 20
Body and mass ...................................... 21
Mass, force, pressure, moment of force.............. 22
Motion rules........................................ 23
Mechanical work, mechanical power, energy .... 24
Transmissions ...................................... 25
Pulleys, wedges, winches............................ 26
Heat................................................ 27
Charge, voltage, electric current, resistance....... 28
Electric power, electric work....................... 29
Electric field, capacitor .......................... 30
Alternating quantities, wavelength ................. 31
Power of alternating sine-wave current, impulse . 32
Magnetic field, coil ............................... 33
Electric and magnetic field strengths............... 34
Current in the magnetic field, induction ........... 35
Resistor circuits................................... 36
Reference arrows, Kirchhoff's rules, voltage
dividers............................................ 37
Potentiometer ...................................... 38
Equivalent voltage source, equivalent current
source, matching.................................... 39
Basic circuits of inductances and capacitances . . 40
Switching capacitors and coils...................... 41
Series connections of R, L, C ...................... 42
Parallel connections of R, L, C .................... 43
Equivalent series connection and equivalent
parallel connection ................................ 44
Simple filters ..................................... 45
Three-phase systems (alternating current)........... 46
Unbalanced load, star-delta conversion,
bridge circuit ..................................... 47
Harmonics .......................................... 48
Resistors and capacitors............................ 49
Colour marking of resistors and capacitors ......... 50
Types of resistors and capacitors................... 51
Application groups and structures of capacitors . 52
Semiconductor resistors............................. 53
Rectifier terms .................................... 54
Diodes.............................................. 55
Field effect transistors, IGBT..................... 56
Bipolar transistors................................ 57
Thyristor..........................................: 58
Thyristor types and trigger diodes................. 59
Types of packages for diodes, transistors and ICs 60
Magnetic field-dependent components................ 61
Photoelectronic components ........................ 62
Protection circuits for diodes and thyristors...... 63
Cooling of semiconductor components ............... 64
Section TM:
Technical Documentation, Measuring................. 65
Graphical representation of characteristics........ 66
General technical drawing ......................... 67
Graphical representation of bodies................. 68
Dimension arrows, special representations ......... 69
Dimensioning....................................... 70
Dimensioning, hatching ............................ 71
Circuit diagrams as functional documents .......... 72
Other functional documents......................... 73
Location- and connection-related documents .... 74
Logic sequence control diagrams ................... 75
Marking in circuit diagrams ....................... 76
Code letters for components (objects) in
circuit diagrams................................... 77
Code letters for subclasses and infrastructure
object classes..................................... 78
Subclasses according to the task of an object ... 79
Contact marking in circuit diagrams ............... 80
Circuit symbols ................................... 81
General circuit symbols ........................... 82
Additional circuit symbols, switches in
energy plants...................................... 83
Measuring instruments and devices ................. 84
Semiconductor components .......................... 85
Binary elements.................................... 86
Analog information processing, meters and
tariff switchgears................................. 88
Electroacoustic converters and aerial systems ... 89 Circuit symbols for installation circuit diagrams
and installation diagrams.......................... 90
Installation circuit diagram ...................... 92
Circuit symbols for overview diagrams.............. 93
Coils, transformers, transductors,
rotating generators ............................... 94
Single-phase A.C. motors and starters ............. 95
Three-phase motors and starters.................... 96
Motors with A.C./D.C. drive systems................ 97
Comparison of circuit symbols...................... 98
Hydraulic and pneumatic controls................... 100
Circuit symbols for the European installation
bus EIB ........................................... 101
Contents
Symbols in process engineering ................... 102
Preparing documentation on equipment
and plant......................................... 103
Structure and contents of operating
instructions...................................... 104
Electrical measuring instruments and systems . 105
Pictographs for measuring......................... 106
Measuring circuits for resistance calculation v... 107
Measuring range extension ........................ 108
Measurements in electrical installations.......... 109
Measuring circuits using power meters ............ 111
Electricity meters, kilowatt-hour meters.......... 112
Electronic kilowatt-hour meters .................. 113
Oscilloscope...................................... 114
Measurements with the oscilloscope ............... 115
Displacement and angle measurement
with sensors...................................... 116
Measurement of force and pressure with
sensors........................................... 117
Motion measurement with sensors................... 118
Temperature measurement with sensors.............. 119
Working on electrical equipment................... 120
Section El:
Electricallnstallations........................... 121
Workshop equipment ............................... 122
Cable installation and working on electrical
conductors........................................ 123
On-off circuits, series connection................ 124
Three- and four-way switch circuits............... 125
Automatic switch for staircase lighting, doorbell
system with door opener .......................... 126
Circuits with latching relays..................... 127
Louvre-control circuits .......................... 128
Intercom systems ................................. 130
Two-wire door intercom systems.................... 131
Lamp circuits with dimmers........................ 132
Push-button dimmer, types of dimmers.............. 133
Automatic controller with heat sensor ............ 134
Automatic switch with ultrasonic motion
sensor............................................ 135
Electrical installations with low-voltage
halogen lamps..................................... 136
Field-reducing electrical installations .......... 137
Building management and system engineering . 138
Lines and areas in an EIB/BMS system.............. 139
Components of EIB/BMS systems . . ................ 140
Special actuators and system devices for the
EIB(BMS).......................................... 141
Sensors for the EIB (BMS) ........................ 142
Actuators for the EIB (BMS) ...................... 143
Project design and commissioning of an
EIB system ....................................... 144
Local operating network LON ........................ 145
LON components ..................................... 146
Electrical installations with wireless control .... 147
EIB with FSK control ............................... 149
Local control network LCN .......................... 150
House connection with potential equalisation . . 151
Residential building installations.................. 152
Installation of the meter cabinet................... 153
Future-proof installations.......................... 154
Calculation of circuit loading without branch ... 155
Calculation of circuit loading with branch.......... 157
Protection of conductors against overload and
short circuits...................................... 158
Methods of installation for permanent
installation ....................................... 159
Ampacity of cables and wires at = 25 °C ............ 160
Ampacity of cables and wires at-9-= 30 °C .......... 161
Ampacity of flexible or heat-resistant cables ... 162
Ampacity correction factor.......................... 163
Minimum conductor cross sections, ampacity of
power cables ....................................... 164
Overcurrent protection devices
(low-voltage fuses) ................................ 165
Overcurrent protection devices ..................... 166
Bathrooms with bathtubs or showers.................. 167
Special rooms and facilities, working
under voltage....................................... 168
Saunas and swimming pools........................... 169
Electrical installations in operational facilities
exposed to a risk of fire........................... 170
Electrical installations in agricultural facilities . . 171
Electrical installations in medical areas........... 172
Electrical installations in teaching rooms with
experimental facilities............................. 174
Electrical installations in explosion-risk areas . . 175 Power supply of workshops and machine
shops .............................................. 176
Lighting engineering................................ 177
Design of interior workshop lighting ............... 178
Maintenance factors of workshop lighting ........... 179
Calculation of lighting systems .................... 180
Lighting and glare.................................. 181
Incandescent lamps, metal-vapour lamps.............. 182
Energy-saving lamps, colour reproduction............ 183
Induction lamps and optical fibres.................. 184
Fluorescent lamps for 230 V......................... 185
Electronic ballasts for fluorescent lamps........... 186
Discharge lamp circuits............................. 187
LED lighting ....................................... 188
Photometric data of light fixtures.................. 189
Fluorescent tube systems ........................... 190
Contents
Section SE:
Safety, Energy Supply.............................. 191
First aid at the workplace ........................ 192
Personal protective equipment PPE.................. 193
Signs for accident prevention...................... 194
Signs and colours for accident prevention.......... 195
Distribution systems (network types) .............. 196
Types of contact, current hazards, types
of faults.......................................... 197
Protective measures, protection classes............ 198
Protection by additional insulation ............ .. 199
Other system-independent protective
measures .......................................... 200
Protective systems with earth conductors .......... 201
Initial testing of protective measures............. 203
Repetitive testing................................. 204
Repetitive testing of electrical equipment......... 205
Repair, modification and testing of
electrical equipment .............................. 206
Transformers and chokes, insulation testing . . . 207
Calculation of transformers ....................... 208
Small transformers ................................ 209
Types of power stations ........................... 210
Rotating generators................................ 211
Nameplates of transformers and transducers .. 212
Three-phase transformers .......................... 213
Transformers in parallel operation................. 214
Power mains for energy supply...................... 215
Overhead power lines............................... 216
Sag of overhead power lines ....................... 217
Installation of buried cables...................... 218
Private power generating systems................... 219
Reimbursement for renewable energies
according to EEC, wind power stations.............. 220
Photovoltaic systems .............................. 221
Photovoltaic array................................. 222
Marks and symbols on electrical equipment ... 223
Fuel cells......................................... 224
Protection of electrical equipment, IP codes .... 225
Electrochemistry .................................. 226
Primary cells...................................... 227
Cell batteries, accumulators....................... 228
Charging methods for rechargeable batteries . . 229 Emergency power supply and
emergency lighting................................. 230
Safety power supply systems (SPS) ................. 231
UPS systems (uninterruptible power supply) . . . 232
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ............... 233
Components for surge protection ................... 234
Protection against external surges................. 235
Electromagnetic interferences EMI ................. 236
Measures against EMI............................... 237
Lightning protection .............................. 238
Lightning arrester systems........................ 240
Quality of power supply .......................... 241
Reactive power compensation, power
factor correction................................. 242
Monitoring of final circuits...................... 244
Alarm and monitoring systems ..................... 245
Safety and security systems in buildings ......... 246
Intrusion or burglar alarm system................. 247
Closed-circuit television CCTV.................... 248
Temperatures relevant to heat demand
calculations ..................................... 249
Heat demand and thermal conduction
in buildings...................................... 250
Calculation of the heat demand of detached and
semi-detached houses ............................. 251
Building heating.................................. 252
Underfloor and ceiling panel heating ............. 253
Air conditioning.................................. 254
Electric cookers ................................. 255
Power efficiency classes.......................... 256
Water heaters..................................... 257
Household appliances.............................. 258
Heat pumps ....................................... 259
Electricity tariffs............................... 260
Section 1C:
Information and Communication Technology Systems ........................................... 261
Binary numbers and codes.......................... 262
Hexadecimal and octal numbers .................... 263
ASCII code in Unicode............................. 264
Binary operations ................................ 265
Boolean algebra................................... 266
Development of combinational circuits............. 267
Code converters................................... 268
Flip-flops (bistable multivibrators).............. 269
Digital counters and shift registers ............. 270
D/A converters and A/D converters ................ 271
Microcomputers.................................... 272
Personal computer PC.............................. 273
Visual display units, monitors ................... 274
PC ports and connectors........................... 275
Interface connections ............................ 276
Operating system Windows.......................... 277
Elements of Windows user interfaces............... 278
IT networks....................................... 279
Components of data networks....................... 280
Communication via ethernet ....................... 282
Installation of an ethernet....................... 283
Industrial ethernet............................... 284
Signal transmission............................... 285
Wireless data transmission........................ 286
Contents
Wireless LAN .................................... 287
Identification systems........................... 288
ASI bus system .................................. 289
Interbus......................................... 290
PROFIBUS, process field bus ..................... 291
Remote control systems...............f................... 292
Measuring transducers and signal converters for*
remote control systems .........................v. . . . 293
Programmable measuring transducers for
remote control systems .................................. 294
Connection to the telephone network...................... 295
Telecommunication via ISDN............................... 296
Configuration of an ISDN private branch
exchange ................................................ 297
Internet access.......................................... 298
Internet research ....................................... 299
Backing up and protecting data........................... 300
Aerials, electrical equipment for aerial systems . 301
Satellite reception ..................................... 302
Satellite equipment...................................... 303
Aerial systems for satellite receivers................... 304
Master aerial systems.................................... 305
Installation and safety of aerial systems................ 306
Broadband communication systems.......................... 307
Base circuits of amplifiers.............................. 308
Section AC:
Automation, Drive and Control Systems ................... 309
Fundamental principles of the operational
amplifier................................................ 310
Circuits with operational amplifiers..................... 311
Tasks of power converters ............................... 313
Identification codes for converter connections . . 314 Circuits for rectifiers and power converters .... 315 Bidirectional connection, control
characteristics ......................................... 316
Operating quadrants for drives, linear motors . . 317
Semi-controlled power converters......................... 318
Fully controlled power converters........................ 319
Inverters................................................ 320
D.C. choppers, voltage source inverters.................. 321
Voltage source inverters VSI............................. 322
Triggering circuits for semiconductors .................. 323
Smoothing and voltage stabilisation...................... 324
Fundamentals of switch-mode power supplies . 325
Switch-mode power supplies............................... 326
Switching transistors and multivibrators ................ 327
Solid state relays SSR and reed relays
(optocouplers) .......................................... 328
Small controller EASY.................................... 329
Small controller LOGO!................................... 330
Structograms and program flowcharts...................... 331
Programmable logic controller PLC................. 332
Signal coupling for PLCs and microcomputers . 333
Control statements for PLCs....................... 334
Program examples for PLCs......................... 336
Counters and timers in PLCs ...................... 338
Programming languages SCL (Structured Control Language) and SFC (Sequential
Function Chart) .................................. 339
Program structure for PLC S7...................... 340
Alphanumeric identification of connections .... 341
Control engineering............................... 342
Electronic control of electrical consumers ....... 343
Limit values for loads connected to the
national grid..................................... 344
Electromagnetic contactors ....................... 345
Special types of contactors....................... 346
Identification of contactors and control
devices .......................................... 347
Utilisation categories and test conditions
applying to contactors............................ 348
Contactor circuits................................ 349
Motor protection ................................. 351
Electronic motor protection ...................... 352
Control via motor switches........................ 353
Optoelectronic proximity switches
(light barriers) ................................. 354
Proximity switches ............................... 355
Ultrasonic sensors................f............... 356
Automatic control engineering..................... 357
Discontinuous automatic control elements.... 358
Continuous automatic control elements............. 359
Automatic digital control ........................ 360
Setting of control loops.......................... 361
Operating modes and temperature rise limits . . 363
Standard insulation classes, rated powers......... 364
Operating data of squirrel cage motors............ 365
Surface-cooled squirrel cage motors
(standard motors) ................................ 366
Types of construction of rotating
electrical machines .............................. 367
Calculation formulas for rotating electrical
machines ......................................... 368
Nameplates of rotating electrical machines .... 369
Three-phase motors ............................... 370
Troubleshooting on three-phase asynchronous
motors ........................................... 371
Single-phase A.C. motors.......................... 372
D.C. motors ...................................... 373
Servomotors ...................................... 374
Stepper motors ................................... 375
Testing on electrical machines.................... 376
Three-phases windings............................. 377
D.C. windings..................................... 378
Drive systems..................................... 379
Contents
Selection of the suitable drive motor......... 380 ISO system of limits and fits................. 413
Starting of squirrel cage motors ............ 381 Organisational structures of companies....... 414
Periodic table, chemical bond .............. 382
Section MC: Section CE:
Materials, Connecting, Joining and Bonding . . 383 The Company and its Environment,
Specific material values ................... 384 Environmental, Technology, Annex........... 415
Steel standardisation...................... 385 Teamwork................................ 416
Conducting materials in electrical engineering Preparing a presentation.................... 417
(nonferrous metals)....................... 386 Realising projects ......................... 418
Magnetisation characteristics (B-H curves) .... 387 Job planning, network planning ............. 419
Magnetic materials ....................... 388 Constituents of a collective labour agreement . 420
Solders, thermal bimetals, carbon brushes .. . 389 Qualifications to perform electrotechnical work 421
Contact materials, overhead power lines ..... 390 Legal transactions of the company ........... 422
Insulators ............................... 391 Costs and key figures ...................... 423
Synthetic materials used as insulators ....... 393 Cost accounting........................... 424
Other insulators.......................... 394 Preparing a quotation...................... 425
Auxiliary materials........................ 395 Design-of-work and scope-of-work
Cables and wires......................... 396 specifications............................. 426
Insulated power cables and cords........... 397 Computer-aided planning of electrical
Power cables and cords ................... 398 installations .............................. 427
Other cables for permanent installation ...... 399 Certification and auditing .................. 428
Cables for the connection of mobile CE marking.............................. 429
equipment .............................. 400 Terms of environmental engineering......... 430
Cables and wires for alarm and Hazardous substances..................... 431
signalling systems........................ 401 Risk phrases according to EH40............. 432
Cables and wires in data networks .......... 402 Safety phrases according to EH40........... 433
Wires for ELV lighting ..................... 403 Handling of electronic waste products........ 434
Codes for colour marking of power cables .... 404 European and international organisations and
Cables for power distribution............... 405 terms of standardisation................... 435
Connectors in power engineering ........... 406 Important DIN and IEC standards............ 436
Connectors.............................. 407 Important VDE regulations................. 438
RJ45 and RJ11 connectors................. 408 Glossary ................................ 439
Audio connectors......................... 409 Subject index............................ 444
Cable conduits........................... 410 Web addresses of companies and
Nomenclature and samples of screws, bolts organisations............................ 454
and nuts ................................ . 411 Supporting companies and organisations .... 456
Metric ISO threads........................ 412

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