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Marine Propellers and Propulsion Third Edition

Year: 2012
Language: english
Author: J S Carlton FREng
Genre: Technical book
Edition: 3rd
Format: PDF
Quality: eBook
Pages count: 518
Description: Since the second edition was published in 2007 a number of
important changes have and are taking place which relate to
ship propulsion. Among these are the developments arising
from the IMO’s initiatives on the Energy Efficiency Design
Index and the bringing to fruition of their earlier work on
hull coatings stemming from their resolution on the subject
in 2001. In addition to these legislative initiatives is
a greater understanding of the physics associated with
cavitation development and collapse and its subsequent
erosive effects on propeller materials. Morover, some new
types of propulsor are being developed while in other
technical fields there is a greater awareness, for example, of
the effects of shipping activity on the behavior of marine
mammals. It is the intention of this third edition to capture
these and other developments that have occurred. In addition
a certain amount of rearrangement of the subject
matter has also taken place.


Table of Contents
Preface to the Third Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
General Nomenclature
Chapter 1. The Early Development of the Screw Propeller
Further Reading
Chapter 2. Propulsion Systems
2.1 Fixed Pitch Propellers
2.2 Ducted Propellers
2.3 Podded and Azimuthing Propulsors
2.4 Contra-Rotating Propellers
2.5 Overlapping Propellers
2.6 Tandem Propellers
2.7 Controllable Pitch Propellers
2.8 Surface Piercing Propellers
2.9 Waterjet Propulsion
2.10 Cycloidal Propellers
2.11 Paddle Wheels
2.12 Magnetohydrodynamic Propulsion
2.13 Whale-Tail Propulsion
References and Further Reading
Chapter 3. Propeller Geometry
3.1 Frames of Reference
3.2 Propeller Reference Lines
3.3 Pitch
3.4 Rake and Skew
3.5 Propeller Outlines and Area
3.6 Propeller Drawing Methods
3.7 Section Geometry and Definition
3.8 Blade Thickness Distribution and Thickness Fraction
3.9 Blade Interference Limits for Controllable Pitch Propellers
3.10 Controllable Pitch Propeller Off-Design Section Geometry
3.11 Miscellaneous Conventional Propeller Geometry Terminology
References and Further Reading
Chapter 4. The Propeller Environment
4.1 Density of Water
4.2 Salinity
4.3 Water Temperature
4.4 Viscosity
4.5 Vapor Pressure
4.6 Dissolved Gases in Sea Water
4.7 Surface Tension
4.8 Weather
4.9 Silt and Marine Organisms
References and Further Reading
Chapter 5. The Ship Wake Field
5.1 General Wake Field Characteristics
5.2 Wake Field Definition
5.3 The Nominal Wake Field
5.4 Estimation of Wake Field Parameters
5.5 Effective Wake Field
5.6 Wake Field Scaling
5.7 Wake Quality Assessment
5.8 Wake Field Measurement
References and Further reading
Chapter 6. Propeller Performance Characteristics
6.1 General Open Water Characteristics
6.2 The Effect of Cavitation on Open Water Characteristics
6.3 Propeller Scale Effects
6.4 Specific Propeller Open Water Characteristics
6.5 Standard Series Data
6.6 Multi-Quadrant Series Data
6.7 Slipstream Contraction and Flow Velocities in the Wake
6.8 Behind-Hull Propeller Characteristics
6.9 Propeller Ventilation
References and Further Reading
Chapter 7. Theoretical Methods – Basic Concepts
7.1 Basic Aerofoil Section Characteristics
7.2 Vortex Filaments and Sheets
7.3 Field Point Velocities
7.4 The Kutta Condition
7.5 The Starting Vortex
7.6 Thin Aerofoil Theory
7.7 Pressure Distribution Calculations
7.8 Boundary Layer Growth Over an Aerofoil
7.9 The Finite Wing
7.10 Models of Propeller Action
7.11 Source and Vortex Panel Methods
7.12 Euler, Lagrangian and Navier–Stokes Methods
References and Further Reading
Chapter 8. Theoretical and Analytical Methods Relating to Propeller Action
8.1 Momentum Theory – Rankine (1865); R.E. Froude (1887)
8.2 Blade Element Theory – W. Froude (1878)
8.3 Propeller Theoretical Development (1900–1930)
8.4 Burrill’s Analysis Procedure (1944)
8.5 Lerbs Analysis Method (1952)
8.6 Eckhardt and Morgan’s Design Method (1955)
8.7 Lifting Surface Correction Factors – Morgan et al.
8.8 Lifting Surface Models
8.9 Lifting Line–Lifting Surface Hybrid Models
8.10 Vortex Lattice Methods
8.11 Boundary Element Methods
8.12 Methods for Specialist Propulsors
8.13 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis
References and Further Reading
Chapter 9. Cavitation
9.1 The Basic Physics of Cavitation
9.2 Types of Cavitation Experienced by Propellers
9.3 Cavitation Considerations in Design
9.4 Cavitation Inception
9.5 Cavitation-Induced Damage
9.6 Cavitation Testing of Propellers
9.7 Analysis of Measured Pressure Data from a Cavitating Propeller
9.8 The CFD Prediction of Cavitation
References and Further Reading
Chapter 10. Propeller Noise
10.1 Physics of Underwater Sound
10.2 Nature of Propeller Noise
10.3 Noise Scaling Relationships
10.4 Noise Prediction and Control
10.5 Transverse Propulsion Unit Noise
10.6 Measurement of Radiated Noise
10.7 Noise in Relation to Marine Mammals
References and Further Reading
Chapter 11. Propeller, Ship and Rudder Interaction
11.1 Bearing Forces and Moments
11.2 Hydrodynamic Interaction
11.3 Propeller–Rudder Interaction
References and Further Reading
Chapter 12. Ship Resistance and Propulsion
12.1 Froude’s Analysis Procedure
12.2 Components of Calm Water Resistance
12.3 Methods of Resistance Evaluation
12.4 Propulsive Coefficients
12.5 The Influence of Rough Water
12.6 Restricted Water Effects
12.7 High-Speed Hull form Resistance
12.8 Air Resistance
References and Further Reading
Chapter 13. Thrust Augmentation Devices
13.1 Devices Before the Propeller
13.2 Devices at the Propeller
13.3 Devices Behind the Propeller
13.4 Combinations of Systems
References and Further Reading
Chapter 14. Transverse Thrusters
14.1 Transverse Thrusters
14.2 Steerable Internal Duct Thrusters
References and Further Reading
Chapter 15. Azimuthing and Podded Propulsors
15.1 Azimuthing Thrusters
15.2 Podded Propulsors
References and Further Reading
Chapter 16. Waterjet Propulsion
16.1 Basic Principle of Waterjet Propulsion
16.2 Impeller Types
16.3 Maneuvering Aspects of Waterjets
16.4 Waterjet Component Design
References and Further Reading
Chapter 17. Full-Scale Trials
17.1 Power Absorption Measurements and Trials
17.2 Bollard Pull Trials
17.3 Propeller-Induced Hull Surface Pressure Measurements
17.4 Cavitation Observations
References and Further Reading
Chapter 18. Propeller Materials
18.1 General Properties of Propeller Materials
18.2 Specific Properties of Propeller Materials
18.3 Mechanical Properties
18.4 Test Procedures
References and Further Reading
Chapter 19. Propeller Blade Strength
19.1 Cantilever Beam Method
19.2 Numerical Blade Stress Computational Methods
19.3 Detailed Strength Design Considerations
19.4 Propeller Backing Stresses
19.5 Blade Root Fillet Design
19.6 Residual Blade Stresses
19.7 Allowable Design Stresses
19.8 Full-Scale Blade Strain Measurement
References and Further Reading
Chapter 20. Propeller Manufacture
20.1 Traditional Manufacturing Method
20.2 Changes to the Traditional Technique of Manufacture
References and Further Reading
Chapter 21. Propeller Blade Vibration
21.1 Flat-Plate Blade Vibration in Air
21.2 Vibration of Propeller Blades in Air
21.3 The Effect of Immersion in Water
21.4 Simple Estimation Methods
21.5 Finite Element Analysis
21.6 Propeller Blade Damping
21.7 Propeller Singing
References and Further Reading
Chapter 22. Propeller Design
22.1 The Design and Analysis Loop
22.2 Design Constraints
22.3 The Energy Efficiency Design Index
22.4 The Choice of Propeller Type
22.5 The Propeller Design Basis
22.6 The Use of Standard Series Data in Design
22.7 Design Considerations
22.8 The Design Process
References and Further Reading
Chapter 23. Operational Problems
23.1 Performance Related Problems
23.2 Propeller Integrity Related Problems
23.3 Impact or Grounding
References and Further Reading
Chapter 24. Service Performance and Analysis
24.1 Effects of Weather
24.2 Hull Roughness and Fouling
24.3 Hull Drag Reduction
24.4 Propeller Roughness and Fouling
24.5 Generalized Equations for the Roughness-Induced Power Penalties in Ship Operation
24.6 Monitoring of Ship Performance
References and Further Reading
Chapter 25. Propeller Tolerances and Inspection
25.1 Propeller Tolerances
25.2 Propeller Inspection
References and Further Reading
Chapter 26. Propeller Maintenance and Repair
26.1 Causes of Propeller Damage
26.2 Propeller Repair
26.3 Welding and the Extent of Weld Repairs
26.4 Stress Relief
References and Further Reading


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