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Stability and Trim for the Ship's Officer 4th Edition

Year: 2005
Language: english
Author: William E. George
Genre: Textbook
Publisher: Cornell Maritime Pr/Tidewater Pub
Edition: 4
ISBN: 0870335642
Format: PDF
Quality: Photo of pages
Number of pages: 528 pages
Description: Stability and Trim for the Ship's Officer has been completely updated after twenty-two years. Aboard today's vessels, technology and computers abound as ship's gear. The once long and tedious calculations for stability, trim, and hull strength are now done in minutes. But no matter how much change the industry has undergone, the laws of physics are constant. The only way to verify that the computer is coming up with accurate figures is to read the ship's drafts. Two new chapters have been included, "Prerequisites for Stability, Trim, and Hull Strength Calculations," and "U.S. Coast Guard Questions on Stability, Trim, and Longitudinal Hull Strength." The appendix has also been updated to include the Stability Data Reference Book--August 1989 Edition, which is the same supplied in the United States Coast Guard license examination room.


The Paradigm of "Actual" vs. "Assumed" Loading Conditions
The Study of "Stability, Trim and Hull Strength" vs. "Navigation"-- (An Analogy)
Reading the Vessel's Draft Marks They are not just for Navigation.
The location of the draft marks
"Apparent Draft" vs. "True Draft"
Reading Draft Marks
Draft Readings and Water Density
Brass Loadline Hydrometers vs. Glass Draft Survey Hydrometers
Calculating the Correction to Displacement for Density
Determining the Mean Draft
Some Basic Calculations with the Forward and After Draft Readings
Using the Midship Draft Marks
Determining the Quarter Mean Draft Corrected for Deflection
Calculating Air Drafts
The Vessel as Its Own Best Loading Computer
An example of using determining Actual vs. Assumed Displacement
Protocols in Dealing with Actual Loading Conditions
The Capacity Plan
Assumptions the Naval Architect or Ship Builder made that you need to know about.
Chapter 2: What Is Stability?
Types of Initial Stability
Positive Stability
Neutral Stability
Negative Stability
Six Motions of a Vessel
Centers of Gravity and Buoyancy
The Couple
Righting Moment is the True Measure of a Vessel's Stability
Righting Arm as an Indicator of Stability
Initial Stability
Transverse Metacenter
Stable, Neutral, and Unstable Equilibrium
Metacentric Height
Metacentric Radius
Chapter 3: Calculation of the Ship's Vertical Center of Gravity, KG
Notation Used in this Chapter
What is the Center of Gravity?
How is the Center of Gravity located on your vessel?
The Light Ship KG and Weight
Definition of a Moment
Using Theory of Moments to Find KG
Calculating GG' (Shift of G)
GG' Formula
Calculating GG' with Suspended Weight
Finding KG When Loading or Discharging
Containers and Container Ships: Bays, Tiers and Rows
Finding the Vertical Center of Gravity, KG, for the Vessel
Required Accuracy of KG
Checking Your Calculations for Accuracy:
The Total Weight of the Vessel equals its Displacement and corresponding Draft!
Revisiting Chapter 1: The Paradigm of "Actual" vs. "Assumed" Loading Conditions
Chapter 4: Determining Height of KM
Notation Used in this Chapter
Notation Used in previous Chapters
KM for the vessel is readily available to the ship's officer.
What is KM?
Calculating KB
Calculating BM
Moment of Inertia
Moment of Inertia for a Rectangular Shape
Approximating Moment of Inertia for a Ship's Waterplane
Approximating BM for Curved Waterplanes
Analysis of Vertical Movement of KM
Effect of Vertical Movement of M, on Beam to Draft Ratio
Summation of KM Vertical Movement
Movement of M with Transverse Inclination
Ballasting the Vessel in a Light Draft Condition
Chapter 5:Calculating GM
What is a Good GM?
Stability versus Cargo Stowage
Relation of GM to Rolling Period
Rolling Period Formula in English Units of Feet
Rolling Period Formula in Metric Units of Meters
The Roll Test
Conducting a Roll Test
Rolling Test GM versus Calculated GM
The Natural Rolling Period vs. Apparent Rolling Period
Your Vessel's Rolling Period at Sea
Rolling Period for Different Types of Vessels
A CASE STUDY: GM, Roll Angle and Rolling Period
Recommended Values of GM for Ships Carrying Timber Deck Cargoes
A Review of Log Exports from the United States West Coast
Vessel Studied
Assumed Loaded Condition
Calculating Required Restraining Forces for
Various Maximum Roll Angles and Rolling Periods
Estimating the Vessel's Unrestricted Rolling in Waves
Comparison of Vessel's Behavior in Waves and the Total Required Restraining Force
Proportionate Loss of Stability
Effect of Negative GM on Vessels
Practical Methods of Calculating GM
The Standard Long Form Method
Practical Problem
Chapter 6: The Inclining Experiment
Why Needed on Ships of Similar Design
What It Is?
Required Gear and Data
Performing the Inclining Experiment
Derivation of Inclining Experiment Formula
Precautions to Take During Experiment
An Example of the Inclining Experiment
Legal Requirements
Practical Applications
Transverse Center of Gravity, TCG, and Transverse Heeling Moments
The Moment to Heel 1o
Chapter 7: Stability at Large Angles of Inclination
Effect of GM
Cross Curves of Stability vs. Stability Curves
Constructing Cross Curves of Stability
Drawing the Statical Stability Curve
Using GM to Obtain an Accurate Start
Correcting for a Vertical Shift of G
Correcting for a Change in Displacement
Correcting for a Transverse Shift of G
Analyzing a Statical Stability Curve
Summary Analysis
The Effect of Hull form on Righting Arms
List in Relation to Statical Stability Curves
Angle of Flooding
Stability Criteria and Statical Stability Curve
Rahola's Intact Stability Criteria also known as IMO Resolution A.167
U. S. Navy Criteria
IMO Resolution A562 Stability Requirements in Wind and Waves
Chapter 8: Free Surface
Free Surface Principles
Effect of Surface Dimensions
Effect of Specific Gravity
Effect of Amount of Liquid in Tank
Effect of Weight and Vertical Position of Liquids
Free Surface Corrections
EXAMPLES in English Units
EXAMPLES in Metric Units
Free Surface Constants
EXAMPLES in English Units
EXAMPLES in Metric Units
Presentation of Free Surface Data and Method of Calculation
Cross-Connection Valve for Deep Tanks
Cross-Connection Valve for Fuel Tanks on Small Displacement Vessels
Effect on Overall Stability
SUDDEN CAPSIZE SYNDROME: a practical exercise and review
Understanding Free Surface Effect
Chapter 9: Trim
Trimming Moments
Change of Trim Caused by Shifted Weight
Change of Trim caused by Loaded or Discharged Weights
Calculating Exact Distribution of Trim Change
Calculating MT1 and MTC
Effect of Trim on Draft Readings
Trim and Its Effect on Displacement
Corrections to Displacement due to Trim in the Metric System
Corrections to Displacement due to Trim in the English System
Correcting Calculated Displacement for Observed Water Density
Correcting Calculated Drafts for Water Density
A Change in Water Density Can Also Change Your Vessel's Trim
Trim Effects Passing from Salt to Fresh Water
Effects of Trim on Transverse Stability
Change of Trim Due to Large Weights
LCG Method of Trim Calculation
Working the LCG Method Backward to find the Vessel's Actual LCG
Illustrative Trim Problems
Thought Problems
Problems Using Deadweight Scale
Problems Using Deadweight Scale
Chapter 10: Longitudinal Hull Strength
The Ship as a Structure
Strength of the Structure
Strength of Materials
Preliminary Stress Definitions
Why is steel the major material used in building ships?
Properties of Metals
Stresses on a Loaded Beam
What Causes the Deflection of the Beam?
What Limits the Deflection of a Beam?
What Is the Strength Equation?
Longitudinal Strength of Ships
Beam Theory of Ship's Strength
The Application of Beam Theory to the Vessel
A Still Water, (protected harbor), Condition
A Severe Sea Condition
Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams
Important Characteristics of Shear and Bending Moment Curves
Shear and Bending Moment Curves for a Ship in Waves
Summary of Longitudinal Strength Calculations
The Midship Section Plan
Structural Tests on Ships
Applied Longitudinal Hull Strength Aboard Ship
Recommendations To Avoid Overloading of Bulk Carrier Structures
Influence of an error in loading
Conditions to be Satisfied for Correct Loading
Loading manual
Maximum draft
Maximum allowable weights in each individual hold
Maximum level of water in some holds
Maximum Allowable Still Water Bending Moments (ASWBM) and Maximum
Allowable Still Water Shear Forces (ASWSF)
Loading conditions for which the ship has been approved
Minimum draft in way of a hold being loaded with cargo
Port limitations
Loading Instrument
Precautions to Avoid Inadvertent Loading
Preparation of the sequence of loading pour by pour
General precautions to follow the complete loading sequence
Block loading
Damage by the unloading tools
Change of ballast at sea
The Loading Plan
Chapter 11: Shipboard Computers and the Approved Stability Booklet
Evolution of the Loading Computer
Ralston Stability and Trim Indicator
Deck, Holds and Deep Tanks and Double Bottom Tanks
Need for New Loading Computers
Loadoscope Mk 2
1985 to 1995: Personal Computers Going to Sea
1995 to 2000: The Age of the Internet and Cellular Telephones
2000 and the future: Wireless Internet
Advantages of Loading Computers
The Approved Trim and Stability Booklet
Chapter 12: The Ship in the Damaged Condition
The Damaged Condition
Damaged Condition Due to Collision
High Energy Collisions
Moderate Energy Collisions
Low Energy Collisions
Effect of Flooding on Transverse Stability
Lost Buoyancy Method
Added Weight Method
Remedial Measures to Improve Transverse Stability
Dangerous Effect of Flooded Wing Compartments
Added Weight Method Using the Statical Stability Curve
Summary: Damage on Transverse Stability
Effect of Grounding on Stability
Effect of Flooding on Reserve Buoyancy
What Is Reserve Buoyancy?
Floodable Length Curves
What Is the Factor of Subdivision?
Compartment Standard
How the Ship's Officer Uses Floodable Length Curves?
Effect of Permeability on Floodable Length
Approximating Permeability of a Space
Longitudinal Hull Strength and the Damaged Condition
How Fast Will a Ship Sink?
Chapter 13: Practical Stability and Trim Considerations
I. Practical Considerations
Factors Affecting the Rolling of Ships
Transverse Sliding Force
Forces due to Angular Acceleration
Effect of GM
Effect of Draft and Displacement
Effect of Mass Moment of Inertia
Effect of Synchronized Rolling
Anti-rolling Devices and Their Effect
Bilge Keels
Anti-rolling Tanks
Anti-rolling Fins
Gyroscopic Stabilizers
What is a Good GM?
Purpose of Ballasting
Ensuring Safety with a Small GM
II. How to Plan to Load a Ship to Obtain Desired or Required GM and Trim
Outline of the Method
Practical Example of the Method
III. How to Load a Ship to Obtain Desired or Required GM and Trim
Loading a Log Ship
Four Things that Keep the Logs on Deck
A Good GM
The System of Lashing
Avoiding Overloading the Logs Stowed on Deck
Good Seamanship
Loading the Vessel
Practical Example of a Draft Check near the Completion of Loading
Chapter 14: Stability Requirements for Vessels Loading Bulk Grain
What Is the National Cargo Bureau?
Services Performed by NCB
Educational Services Provided by NCB
Background Information Concerning Bulk Grain
Definitions Concerning Bulk Grain Cargo
Assumptions Concerning Bulk Grain Cargo
Heeling Moments Produced by a Grain Shift
Volumetric Heeling Moments and the Metric System
Calculations of Volumetric Heeling Moments
Allowance for a Vertical Shift of Grain
Stability Regulations for Loading Bulk Grain
Determining Maximum Allowable Heeling Moment
Table of Allowable Heeling Moments
Interpolation and Allowable Heeling Moment Tables
Specially Suitable Ships
Dispensation from Trimming the Ends
Important Assumptions for "Existing Specially Suitable Ships" under Section V(B)
Stability Criteria for Section V(B) Specially Suitable Ships
Proving Compliance with Section V(B).
Tables of Required GM.
Tank Vessels Carrying Bulk Grain
Comparison of Regulations
Grain Stability Booklets
Document of Authorization
Certificate of Readiness
NCB Grain Stability Calculation Form
Front Page
Second Page, Part I
Third Page, Part II
Departure Condition
Intermediate Condition
Arrival Condition
Fourth Page, Part III
Top Section
Center Section
Constructing and Measuring a Statical Stability Diagram
Bottom Section
Units, Trim and Drafts
At the Completion of Loading
Preloading Planning Calculations
Bulk Carriers and Panama Canal Draft Calculations
Certificate of Loading and U.S. Coast Guard Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular No.
Chapter 15: Marine Disasters
The Fire and Capsizing of the Normandie
The Grounding and Capsizing of Patti-B
SS Silver Dove-Cargo Shift and Sinking
SS Sea Witch and SS Esso Brussels-A Moderate Energy Collision
Loss of the SS Edmund Fitzgerald
Loss of the SS Yellowstone--Insufficient Reserve Buoyancy
Additional U.S. Coast Guard Casualty Reports on the Internet
Commercial Fishing Continues to Rank At or Near the Top of the Most Hazardous Occupations
in the
United States.
Chapter 16: U.S Coast Guard Questions on
Stability, Trim and Longitudinal Hull Strength
Merchant Mariner Information Center
New & Revised Exam Questions
Deck Exam Questions
Materials Allowed in the Exam Room
Typical Examination Processes
Multiple Choice Questions with Answers
General Deck Questions (Book 2)
Safety Questions (Book 4)
Tabular Questions with Answers
General Deck Tabular Questions (Book 2)
Safety Tabular Questions (Book 4)
Safety Questions (Book 4): That Require Materials Allowed in the Exam Room
Getting Ready to Sit for Your USCG License
Appendix A: Merchant Marine Deck Examination Reference Material Stability Data Reference
Appendix B: M/V HUDSON--Stability Letter
Appendix C: M/V SURVEYOR--Stability Letter
Appendix D: Useful Stability and Trim Formulas
Appendix E: Conversion Factors and Useful Information for Stability and Trim Calculations
Appendix F: Instructions for Draft Survey Hydrometer


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