gillnumil ® 18-Авг-2018 15:22

Liquefied Gases: Marine Transportation and Storage


Year: 2000
Language: english
Author: Alain Vaudolon
Genre: Textbook
Publisher: Witherby Publishing Group Ltd
Edition: 1st
ISBN: 185609197X
Format: PDF
Quality: Scanned pages
Pages count: 176
Description: This book briefly reviews the history of the marine transportation of liquefied gases and discusses in detail the conditions that prevail today. It provides an overview of all aspects of the industry, including the characteristics of the ships, safety and reliability, the rules and regulations in force and details of storage tanks on shore

Contents

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 2 - THE PRODUCTS
2.1 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) – ORIGINS AND CHARACTERISTICS
2.2 LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) – ORIGINS AND CHARACTERISTICS
2.3 LIQUEFIED PETROCHEMICAL GASES
2.3.1 GENERAL
2.3.2 AMMONIA
2.3.3 BUTADIENE
2.3.4 PROPYLENE
2.3.5 VINYL CHLORIDE MONOMER
2.3.6 ETHYLENE
CHAPTER 3 - HISTORY
3.1 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)
3.1.1 THE BEGINNING
3.1.2 DEVELOPMENT
3.1.3 LIQUEFIED
3.1.4 ETHYLENE
3.2 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)
3.2.1 THE BEGINNING
3.2.2 DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER 4 - THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE
4.1 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES AND PETROCHEMICAL GASES
4.1.1 THE FLEET
4.1.2 THE TRADE
a) GENERAL
b) LIQUEFIED
c) AMMONIA
d) PETROCHEMICAL GASES
i) ETHYLENE
ii) PROPYLENE
iii) BUTADIENE
iv) VINYL CHLORIDE MONOMER (VCM)
4.1.3 THE TERMINALS
4.1.4 COMMERCIAL TITLES
4.2 LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG)
4.2.1 THE FLEET
4.2.2 THE TRADE
4.2.3 THE TERMINALS
4.2.4 COMMERCIAL TITLES
CHAPTER 5 - VARIOUS TYPES OF LIQUEFIED GAS TANKERS
5.1 GENERAL – THE IMO CODE DEFINITIONS
5.2 FULLY PRESSURISED SHIPS
5.3 SEMI-PRESSURISED SHIPS
5.4 FULLY REFRIGERATED SHIPS
5.5 INSULATED SHIPS FOR LNG
5.5.1 SPHERICAL TANKS
5.5.2 MEMBRANE TANKS
5.5.3 SELF-SUPPORTING, PRISMATIC TYPE B (SPB) TANKS
CHAPTER 6 - OTHER CHARACTERISTICS SPECIFIC TO LIQUEFIED GAS TANKERS
6.1 GENERAL
6.2 RULES AND REGULATIONS
6.2.1 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
6.2.2 OPERATION AND CREWING
6.3 CARGO EQUIPMENT
6.3.1 PIPES AND VALVES
6.3.2 RELIQUEFACTION PLANTS
6.3.3 PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS
6.3.4 CARGO QUANTITY MEASUREMENT-CUSTODY TRANSFER
6.3.5 INERT GAS AND NITROGEN
6.4 SAFETY EQUIPMENT
6.4.1 EMERGENCY SHUT-DOWN SYSTEMS (ESDS)
6.4.2 OTHER SAFETY EQUIPMENT
CHAPTER 7 - PORTS, TERMINALS AND JETTIES
7.1 REDUCING THE LEVEL OF RISK
7.2 LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
7.3 OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
CHAPTER 8 - CHORE STORAGE TANKS
8.1 GENERAL
8.2 STORAGE UNDER PRESSURE AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
8.2.1 SPHERICAL AND HORIZONTAL CYLINDRICAL TANKS ABOVE GROUND
8.2.2 MOUNDED HORIZONTAL CYLINDRICAL TANKS
8.2.3 UNDERGROUND CAVERNS
8.3 STORAGE IN SEMI-PRESSURISED SPHERES
8.4 STORAGE AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IN REFRIGERATED CONDITION
8.4.1 DIFFERENT TYPES OF REFRIGERATED STORAGE TANKS
a) ABOVE-GROUND TANKS
b) IN-GROUND TANKS
c) IN-PIT OR SEMI-BURIED TANKS
8.4.2 DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS
a) SINGLE CONTAINMENT
b) DOUBLE CONTAINMENT
c) FULL CONTAINMENT
d) MEMBRANE TANKS
8.4.3 STANDARD FOR LOW TEMPERATURE STORAGE TANKS
8.4.4 MATERIALS USED FOR LOW TEMPERATURE STORAGE TANKS
8.5 EVOLUTION OF THE SIZE OF SHORE TANKS
8.6 SOME POSSIBLE INCIDENTS IN LIQUEFIED GAS SHORE STORAGE
8.6.1 ROLLOVER
8.6.2 FIRE HAZARD
8.6.3 BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOUR EXPLOSION (BLEVE)
CHAPTER 9 - OPERATIONS
9.1 SHIP OPERATIONS
9.1.1 GENERAL
9.1.2 CARGO OPERATIONS
a) PREPARATION FOR LOADING
b) LOADING
c) LOADED VOYAGE
d) DISCHARGING
e) BALLAST VOYAGE
f) CHANGING CARGO OR PREPARATION FOR DRY DOCKING
g) CHANGING CARGO AFTER AMMONIA
9.2 PORT OPERATIONS
9.2.1 GENERAL
9.2.2 EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION BETWEEN SHIP, PORT AND TERMINAL
9.2.3 SHIP’S ARRIVAL AND TRANSIT TO THE BERTH
9.2.4 SHIP ALONGSIDE THE BERTH
9.2.5 SAFETY AND CONTINGENCY
CHAPTER 10- SHIP TO SHIP TRANSFER
10.1 LPG AND LIQUEFIED PETROCHEMICAL GASES
10.2 LNG
CHAPTER 11- SAFETY OF LIQUEFIED GAS MARINE TRANSPORTATION
11.1 SAFETY RECORD
11.2 HAZARDS AND RISKS
11.2.1 INTRODUCTION
11.2.2 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION
11.2.3 CONSEQUENCES OF CERTAIN TYPES OF ACCIDENT
11.2.4 FREQUENCY OF ACCIDENT SCENARIOS
a) GENERAL
b) FREQUENCY OF SHIP INCIDENTS
c) FREQUENCY OF TERMINAL INCIDENTS
d) OTHER HAZARDS
e) IGNITION OF RELEASES
11.2.5 RISK ASSESSMENT
CHAPTER 12- SOME STORIES
12.1 ACCIDENTS INVOLVING LNG AND LPG TANKERS
12.1.1 THE CLEVELAND, OHIO LNG TANK FAILURE – OCTOBER 1944
12.1.2 FEYZIN REFINERY AND STORAGE FACILITIES – FRANCE 1966
12.1.3 LPG STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION CENTRE IN MEXICO CITY – NOVEMBER 1984
12.2 TWO ACCIDENTS INVOLVING LNG TANKERS
12.2.1 THE EL PASO PAUL KAISER – JULY 1979
12.2.2 LNG TAURUS – 1979
12.3 ACCIDENTS INVOLVING LNG TANKERS
12.3.1 THE YUYO MARU COLLISION – NOVEMBER 1974
12.3.2 THE GAS FOUNTAIN – IRAQ/IRAN WAR – OCTOBER 1984
12.4 SOME OTHER INCIDENTS FROM MY OWN RECORDS
12.4.1 A BAD NIGHT IN ZVETINA – LIBYA
12.4.2 A FEW QUIET DAYS OFF THE MEXICO WEST COAST
12.4.3 AN EXAMPLE OF BRITTLE FRACTURE!
12.4.4 A CALL TO BEIRUT, LEBANON, IN MARCH 1976, TO DISCHARGE A PART-CARGO OF LPG
12.4.5 AN ATTEMPT AT JETTISONING LNG
CONCLUSION
INDEX

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