jdecmail ® 21-Авг-2018 01:14

Bulk Carrier Practice


Year: 1993
Language: english
Author: Capt. J. Isbester
Genre: Technical book
Publisher: Nautical Institute
Format: PDF
Quality: OCR without errors
Pages count: 400
Description: This book is an attempt to gather into a single volume all the specialized knowledge and experience
which a master and his deck officers require if they are to operate bulk carriers safely and efficiently. The
emphasis throughout is on the dry bulk trades, and matters such as navigation, ship handling, and safety
have in general been discussed only where they apply specifically to bulk carriers.

Contents

Chapter 1 BULK CARRIERS PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE 15
Evolution from tramp ships, categories of bulk carrier, the layout of a bulk carrier
with particular reference to its distinctive features.
Chapter 2 CHARTERPARTIES 29
Charterparties, time charters, voyage charters, sub-chartering, voyage estimates,
compliance with the charter party, owners' and charterers' voyage orders,
consultation with principals, master's responsibilities including interruptions to
the voyage, keeping full records, surveys, and tendering of notice of readiness.
Chapter 3 LOG BOOKS, RECORDS & REFERENCE BOOKS 37
The records which should be maintained aboard bulk carriers because of their
trade, the reference books which ought to be available for routine inspection, and
the drawings required by deck officers.
Chapter 4 MAINTENANCE AND CARE OF HATCH COVERS 51
Development, hatchcover types, general description and design, surveys, testing
for watertightness, maintenance procedures, some defects, emergency opening &
closing, hatch leakage—first aid.
Chapter 5 PREPARATION OF HOLDS 69
General considerations, disposal of cargo residues, preparation for cleaning,
washing, clearing blocked bilge suctions, drying, sweeping, preparation of bilges
and testing of fittings, hold inspections, time required for hold preparation, final
preparations, hold coatings, ballast holds.
Chapter 6 ENSURING SYSTEMS ARE OPERATIONAL 78
Ventilation, airpipes, hold bilges, soundings, hold temperature systems, deck &
hold lighting, fire smothering systems, hatch coaming drains, deck machinery,
derricks & cranes.
Chapter 7 BALLAST MANAGEMENT 87
Basic pattern of ballast management, relevant regulations, ship's ballast layout,
quantity of ballast required, ballasting whilst discharging, ballast management on
passage, restrictions on deballasting, deballasting, achieving good results,
maintenance of ballast tanks, removal of sediment and scale, patching of leaks,
maintenance of coatings in tanks, inspections, closing of tanks.
Chapter 8 STRENGTH, STABILITY, DRAFT & TRIM 103
Shear forces and bending moments, ship movement in a seaway, springing, hull
stress monitoring, stability, free surface effect, angle of loll, flooding, sloshing,
hogging & sagging, squat, effects of list and heel, change of trim due to change of
density.
Chapter 9 PLANNING OF THE LOADING 109
Orders for loading, general approach, maximum lift, limiting point in voyage,
factors which govern the distribution of cargo, the loading/deballasting
programme, two berth and two port loading and discharge, block loading, two
and multi-loader operations, the trimming pours, loading the optimum amount
of cargo, the discharging programme, when cargo cannot be carried safely.
BULK CARRIER PRACTICE 3
Page
Chapter 10 THE LOADING CALCULATIONS 123
Loading computers, the use of loading manuals, their deficiencies and contents,
displacement, stability and longitudinal strength calculations, choice of methods,
practical considerations, grain stability, and timber stability.
Chapter 11 THE LOADING OR DISCHARGING BERTH 139
The final authority for decisions, the need for exchange of information,
maximum safe draft, tidal range and sailing draft, air draft, cargo handling
equipment and rate, positions of structures on quay, mooring requirements,
systems of fendering, systems of access, restrictions on deballasting,
communication with berth operators, tonnage 'on the belt', hours of work, effects
of weather, methods of trimming, loading, and discharging, ship's information
for the berth operator including typical mooring arrangements, methods of
information exchange, storing and handling of cargoes ashore.
Chapter 12 THE LOADING PERIOD 151
The importance of the loading period, arrival in the berth, preloading surveys,
acceptability of the offered cargo, duties of the ship's officers, the
loading/deballasting programme, monitoring of the loading and deballasting,
supervision of the work of the crew, liaison with loading staff, damage to ship or
cargo, maintenance of full records, chief mate's role as troubleshooter, master's
role, shifting ship by warping, safe procedures for working cargo.
Chapter 13 ESTABLISHING THE QUANTITY OF CARGO
LOADED OR DISCHARGED 160
Methods of weighing bulk cargoes ashore, draft survey procedures, reasons for
unexpected results.
Chapter 14 CARGO DOCUMENTS 168
Hold inspection certificates, mate's receipts, bills of lading and authorizations to
sign them, phytosanitary certificates, certificates of compliance, UN approval,
origin, declarations by shipper, certificates of transportable moisture limit,
moisture content, master's response sheet, certificates of IMO classification,
lashing, readiness to load, fitness to proceed to sea, loading, fumigation, weight
and quality, stowage plans, cargo manifests, dangerous cargo manifests, material
safety data, hatch sealing certificates, statements of fact, letters of protest, empty
hold certificates, trimming certificates and stevedores' time sheets, clean ballast
discharge permits and paint compliance certificates.
Chapter 15 THE LOADED VOYAGE 179
Departure from the loading port, choice of route, cargo ventilation, soundings,
acidity of bilges, cargo temperatures, sampling of air in holds, checking and
tightening of cargo lashings daily, inspections in fair and rough weather, conduct
of the voyage in rough weather, reporting, arriving at the discharging port.
Chapter 16 THE DISCHARGING PERIOD 190
Shipboard organisation during discharge, routine procedures, on first arrival,
liaison with the discharging staff, the discharging/ballasting programme,
ballasting, discharge by continuous unloading, grab, Cavaletto, vacuvator or
ship's gear, care for cargo, the search for and repair of stevedores' damage, crew
work.
Chapter 17 THE BALLAST VOYAGE 199
General remarks, departure from the discharging port, choice of route, routine
tasks, conduct of the voyage in rough weather, reporting, before arrival at the
loading port, partial deballasting before berthing.
4 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE
Page
Chapter 18 SPECIAL TYPES OF BULK CARRIERS 203
Operational characteristics of self unloaders, mini-bulkers, forest product ships,
log carriers, retractable tweendeck vessels, vessels with Munck cranes and
combination carriers.
Chapter 19 CARRIAGE OF COMMON & TYPICAL BULK CARGOES 223
Grain, coal, iron ore, steel, forest products.
Chapter 20 UNUSUAL CARGOES & SPECIAL TRADES 239
Bulk cargo separations, taking the ground in the berth, general and breakbulk
cargoes, trading to cold regions.
Chapter 21 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 251
Responsibility for safety, permit to work system, entering enclosed spaces, use of
pesticides, access between ship and shore, hazards from working cargo.
Chapter 22 INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT 258
Atmospheric test equipment, hydrometers, sea water sampling equipment,
whirling psychrometers, mucking winches, mobile cranes, cherrypickers,
scaffolding, paint sprayers, portable sump pumps, high pressure washing
machines, hold inspection systems, big area descalers, sand blasting machines,
needle guns, pneumatic grease guns.
Chapter 23 MAINTENANCE 263
Planned maintenance systems, the planning of maintenance, management of
spare parts, greasing and oiling, painting, maintenance of derricks, cranes and
grabs, ship's fixtures and fittings.
Chapter 24 REPAIRS & DRYDOCKING 275
Repair of damage and defects, drydocking.
Chapter 25 SHIP'S HOUSEKEEPING 282
The housekeeping problem, excluding dust, dealing with dirt, keeping water out,
disposal of wastes.
Chapter 26 BULK CARRIER CASUALTIES 287
Introduction, bulker casualties and their principal causes, other causes of damage
which might lead to loss of a bulker, prevention of casualties, detection of damage,
other constructive proposals, summary.

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