zxc ® 02-Окт-2012 21:22

HANDBOOK FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERS TENTH EDITION


Year: 2000
Language: english
Author: EUGENE A. AVALLONE THEODORE BAUMEISTER III
Genre: HANDBOOK
Publisher: College of the City University of New York
ISBN: 0-07-004997-1
Format: PDF
Quality: OCR without errors
Number of pages: 1774
Description: The sponsoring editors for this book were Robert W. Hauserman and Robert Esposito, the editing supervisor was David E. Fogarty, and the production supervisor was Suzanne W. B. Rapcavage. It was set in Times Roman by Progressive Information Technologies.
Printed and bound by R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
The editors and the publishers will be grateful to readers who notify them of any inaccuracy or important omission in this book.
On the occasion of the publication of the tenth edition of Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, we note that this is also the eightieth anniversary of the publication of the first edition. The Editors and publisher proffer this brief dedication to all those who have been instrumental in the realization of the goals set forth by Lionel S. Marks in the preface to the first edition.
First, we honor the memory of the deceased Editors, Lionel S. Marks and Theodore Baumeister. Lionel S. Marks’ concept of a Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook came to fruition with the publication of the first edition in 1916; Theodore Baumeister followed as Editor with the publication of the sixth edition in 1958.
second, we are indebted to our contributors, past and present, who so willingly mined their expertise to gather material for inclusion in the Handbook, thereby sharing it with others, far and wide.
Third, we acknowledge our wide circle of readers—engineersano others—whohaveused the Handbook in the conduct of their work and, from time to time, have provided cogent commentary, suggestions, and expressions of loyalty.
Preface to the Tenth Edition
In the preparation of the tenth edition of ‘‘Marks,’’ the Editors had two major continuing objectives. First, to modernize and update the contents as required, and second, to hold to the high standard maintained for eighty years by the previous Editors, Lionel S. Marks and Theodore Baumeister.
The Editors have found it instructive to leaf through the first edition of Marks’ Handbook and to peruse its contents. Some topics still have currency as we approach the end of the twentieth century; others are of historical interest only. Certainly, the passage of 80 years since the publication of the first edition sends a clear message that ‘‘things change’’!
The replacement of the U.S. Customary System (USCS) of units by the International System (si) is still far from complete, and proceeds at different rates not only in the engineering professions, but also in our society in general. Accordingly, duality of units has been retained, as appropriate.
Established practice combined with new concepts and developments are the underpinnings of our profession. Among the most significant and far-reaching changes are the incorporation of microprocessors into many tools and devices, both new and old. An ever-increasing number of production processes are being automated with robots performing dull or dangerous jobs.
Workstations consisting of personal computers and a selection of software seemingly without limits are almost universal. Not only does the engineer have powerful computational and analytical tools at hand, but also those same tools have been applied in diverse areas which appear to have no bounds. A modern business or manufacturing entity without a keyboard and a screen is an anomaly.
The Editors are cognizant of the competing requirements to offer the user a broad spectrum of information that has been the hallmark of the Marks’ Handbook since its inception, and yet to keep the size of the one volume within reason. This has been achieved through the diligent efforts and cooperation of contributors, reviewers, and the publisher.
Last, the Handbook is ultimately the responsibility of the Editors. Meticulous care has been exercised to avoid errors, but if any are inadvertently included, the Editors will appreciate being so informed so that corrections can be incorporated in subsequent printings of this edition.
Ardsley, NY Newark, DE Eugene a. Avallone Theodore Baumeister III

Contents

For the detailed contents of any section consult the title page of that section.
Contributors ix
Dedication xiii
Preface to the Tenth Edition xv
Preface to the First Edition xvii
Symbols and Abbreviations xix
1. Mathematical Tables and Measuring Units............................1-1
1.1 Mathematical Tables..........................................................................................1-1
1.2 Measuring Units..................................................................................................1-16
2. Mathematics................................................................................2-1
2.1 Mathematics........................................................................................................2-2
2.2 Computers ..........................................................................................................2-40
3. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids................................................3-1
3.1 Mechanics of Solids ..........................................................................................3-2
3.2 Friction ................................................................................................................3-20
3.3 Mechanics of Fluids ..........................................................................................3-29
3.4 Vibration ..............................................................................................................3-61
4. Heat..............................................................................................4-1
4.1 Thermodynamics................................................................................................4-2
4.2 Thermodynamic Properties of Substances....................................................4-31
4.3 Radiant Heat Transfer........................................................................................4-62
4.4 Transmission of Heat by Conduction and Convection ................................4-79
5. Strength of Materials ................................................................5-1
5.1 Mechanical Properties of Materials ................................................................5-2
5.2 Mechanics of Materials......................................................................................5-14
5.3 Pipeline Flexure Stresses..................................................................................5-55
5.4 Nondestructive Testing......................................................................................5-61
6. Materials of Engineering ..........................................................6-1
6.1 General Properties of Materials ......................................................................6-3
6.2 Iron and Steel......................................................................................................6-13
6.3 Iron and Steel Castings ....................................................................................6-38
6.4 Nonferrous Metals and Alloys; Metallic Specialties......................................6-49
6.5 Corrosion ............................................................................................................6-94
6.6 Paints and Protective Coatings........................................................................6-108
6.7 Wood ....................................................................................................................6-112
6.8 Nonmetallic Materials........................................................................................6-128
6.9 Cement, Mortar, and Concrete ........................................................................6-159
6.10 Water....................................................................................................................6-168
6.11 Lubricants and Lubrication ..............................................................................6-179
6.12 Plastics ................................................................................................................6-185
6.13 Fiber Composite Materials................................................................................6-202
7. Fuels and Furnaces....................................................................7-1
7.1 Fuels ....................................................................................................................7-2
7.2 Carbonization of Coal and Gas Making..........................................................7-30
7.3 Combustion Furnaces........................................................................................7-41
7.4 Incineration..........................................................................................................7-45
7.5 Electric Furnaces and Ovens............................................................................7-52
8. Machine Elements......................................................................8-1
8.1 Mechanism..........................................................................................................8-3
8.2 Machine Elements..............................................................................................8-8
8.3 Gearing ................................................................................................................8-87
8.4 Fluid-Film Bearings............................................................................................8-116
8.5 Bearings with Rolling Contact..........................................................................8-132
8.6 Packings and Seals............................................................................................8-138
8.7 Pipe, Pipe Fittings, and Valves..........................................................................8-143
8.8 Preferred Numbers ............................................................................................8-215
9. Power Generation......................................................................9-1
9.1 Sources of Energy..............................................................................................9-3
9.2 Steam Boilers......................................................................................................9-29
9.3 Steam Engines....................................................................................................9-54
9.4 Steam Turbines ..................................................................................................9-56
9.5 Power-Plant Heat Exchangers..........................................................................9-75
9.6 Internal-Combustion Engines ..........................................................................9-90
9.7 Gas Turbines ......................................................................................................9-124
9.8 Nuclear Power ....................................................................................................9-133
9.9 Hydraulic Turbines..............................................................................................9-149
10. Materials Handling ....................................................................10-1
10.1 Materials Holding, Feeding, and Metering......................................................10-2
10.2 Lifting, Hoisting, and Elevating ........................................................................10-4
10.3 Dragging, Pulling, and Pushing ........................................................................10-19
10.4 Loading, Carrying, and Excavating..................................................................10-23
10.5 Conveyor Moving and Handling ......................................................................10-35
10.6 Automatic Guided Vehicles and Robots ........................................................10-56
10.7 Material Storage and Warehousing ................................................................10-62
11. Transportation............................................................................11-1
11.1 Automotive Engineering....................................................................................11-3
11.2 Railway Engineering ..........................................................................................11-20
11.3 Marine Engineering............................................................................................11-40
11.4 Aeronautics..........................................................................................................11-59
11.5 Jet Propulsion and Aircraft Propellers............................................................11-81
11.6 Astronautics........................................................................................................11-100
11.7 Pipeline Transmission........................................................................................11-126
11.8 Containerization..................................................................................................11-134
12. Building Construction and Equipment....................................12-1
12.1 Industrial Plants..................................................................................................12-2
12.2 Structural Design of Buildings..........................................................................12-18
12.3 Reinforced Concrete Design and Construction ............................................12-49
12.4 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning......................................................12-61
12.5 Illumination..........................................................................................................12-99
12.6 Sound, Noise, and Ultrasonics ........................................................................12-117
13. Manufacturing Processes ........................................................13-1
13.1 Foundry Practice and Equipment....................................................................13-2
13.2 Plastic Working of Metals..................................................................................13-8
13.3 Welding and Cutting ..........................................................................................13-24
13.4 Metal-Removal Processes and Machine Tools..............................................13-45
13.5 Surface-Texture Designation, Production, and Control ..............................13-67
13.6 Woodcutting Tools and Machines ..................................................................13-72
14. Fans, Pumps, and Compressors..............................................14-1
14.1 Displacement Pumps ........................................................................................14-2
14.2 Centrifugal and Axial-Flow Pumps..................................................................14-15
14.3 Compressors ......................................................................................................14-27
14.4 High-Vacuum Pumps ........................................................................................14-39
14.5 Fans......................................................................................................................14-49
15. Electrical and Electronics Engineering ..................................15-1
15.1 Electrical Engineering........................................................................................15-2
15.2 Electronics ..........................................................................................................15-68
16. Instruments and Controls ........................................................16-1
16.1 Instruments..........................................................................................................16-2
16.2 Automatic Controls............................................................................................16-21
16.3 Surveying ............................................................................................................16-50
17. Industrial Engineering................................................................17-1
17.1 Industrial Economics and Management ........................................................17-2
17.2 Cost Accounting ................................................................................................17-11
17.3 Engineering Statistics and Quality Control ....................................................17-19
17.4 Methods Engineering ........................................................................................17-25
17.5 Cost of Electric Power ......................................................................................17-32
17.6 Human Factors and Ergonomics......................................................................17-39
17.7 Automated Manufacturing ................................................................................17-41
18. The Engineering Environment..................................................18-1
18.1 Environmental Control ......................................................................................18-2
18.2 Occupational Safety and Health ......................................................................18-19
18.3 Fire Protection ....................................................................................................18-23
18.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights............................................................18-28
18.5 Miscellany............................................................................................................18-31
19. Refrigeration, Cryogenics, Optics, and Miscellaneous . . . . 19-1
19.1 Mechanical Refrigeration..................................................................................19-2
19.2 Cryogenics ..........................................................................................................19-26
19.3 Optics ..................................................................................................................19-41
19.4 Miscellaneous ....................................................................................................19-43
Index follows Section 19

Contributors

Abraham Abramowitz Consulting Engineer; Professor of Electrical Engineering, Emeritus, The City College, The City University of New York (ILLUMINATION)
Vincent M.Altamuro President, VMA, Inc., TomsRiver, NJ(materialholdingand
FEEDING. CONVEYOR MOVING AND HANDLING. AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLES AND ROBOTS. MATERIAL STORAGE AND WAREHOUSING. METHODS ENGINEERING. AUTOMATED MANUFACTURING. INDUSTRIAL PLANTS)
Alger Anderson Vice President, Engineering, Research & Product Development, Lift-Tech International, Inc. (OVERHEAD TRAVELING CRANES)
William Antis* Technical Director, Maynard Research Council, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (methods engineering)
Dennis N. Assanis Professor ofMechanical Engineering, University ofMichigan (INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES)
Klemens C. Baczewski Consulting Engineer (carbonization of coal and gas making)
Glenn W. Baggley Manager, Regenerative Systems, Bloom Engineering Co., Inc.
(combustion furnaces)
FrederickG. Bailey Consulting Engineer; formerly Technical Coordinator, Thermodynamics and Applications Engineering, General Electric Co. (STEAM TURBINES)
Antonio F. Baldo Professor ofMechanical Engineering, Emeritus, The City College, The City University of New York (NONMETALLIC MATERIALS. MACHINE ELEMENTS) Robert D. Bartholomew Sheppard T. Powell Associates, LLC (CORROSION) George F. Baumeister President, EMC Process Corp., Newport, DE (MATHEMATICAL TABLES)
Heard K. Baumeister Senior Engineer, Retired, International Business Machines Corp. (mechanism)
Howard S. Bean* LatePhysicist, NationalBureau ofStandards (GENERAL PROPERTIES OF materials)
E. R. Behnke* Product Manager, CM Chain Division, Columbus, McKinnon Corp. (chains)
John T. Benedict Retired Standards Engineer and Consultant, Society ofAutomotive Engineers (automotive engineering)
C. H. Berry* Late Gordon McKay Professor ofMechanical Engineering, Harvard University; Late Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Northeastern University (PREFERRED numbers)
Louis Bialy Director, Codes & Product Safety, Otis Elevator Company (ELEVATORS, DUMBWAITERS, AND ESCALATORS)
Malcolm Blair Technical and Research Director, Steel Founders Society of America (IRON AND STEEL CASTINGS)
Omer W. Blodgett Senior Design Consultant, Lincoln Electric Co. (WELDING AND cutting)
Donald E. Bolt Engineering Manager, Heat Transfer Products Dept., Foster Wheeler Energy Corp. (POWER PLANT HEAT EXCHANGERS)
Claus Borgnakke Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan (internal combustion engines)
G. David Bounds Senior Engineer, PanEnergy Corp. (pipeline transmission) William J. Bow Director, Retired, Heat Transfer Products Department, Foster Wheeler Energy Corp. (POWER PLANT HEAT EXCHANGERS)
James L. Bowman Senior Engineering Consultant, Rotary-Reciprocating Compressor Division, Ingersoll-Rand Co. (COMPRESSORS)
Aine Brazil Vice President, Thornton-Tomasetti/Engineers (STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF buildings)
Frederic W. Buse* Chief Engineer, Standard Pump Division, Ingersoll-Rand Co. (DISPLACEMENT pumps)
Contributions by authors whose names are marked with an asterisk were made for the previous edition and have been revised or rewritten by others for this edition. The stated professional position in these cases is that held by the author at the time of his or her contribution.
C. P. Butterfield Chief Engineer, Wind Technology Division, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (wind power)
Benson Carlin* President, O.E.M. Medical, Inc. (sound, noise, and ultrasonics)
C. L. Carlson* Late Fellow Engineer, Research Labs., Westinghouse Electric Corp. (nonferrous metals)
Vittorio (Rino) Castelli Senior Research Fellow, Xerox Corp. (FRICTION, FLUID FILM bearings)
Michael J. Clark Manager, Optical Tool Engineering and Manufacturing, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY (OPTICS)
Ashley C. Cockerill Staff Engineer, Motorola Corp. (engineering statistics and
QUALITY CONTROL)
Aaron Cohen Retired Center Director, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, NASA and Zachry Professor, Texas A&M University (ASTRONAUTICS)
Arthur Cohen Manager, Standards and Safety Engineering, Copper Development Assn. (copper and copper alloys)
D. E. Cole Director, Office for Study of Automotive Transportation, Transportation Research Institute, University of Michigan (INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES)
James M. Connolly Section Head, Projects Department, Jacksonville Electric Authority (cost of electric power)
Robert T. Corry* Retired Associate Professor ofMechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Polytechnic University (INSTRUMENTS)
Paul E. Crawford Partner; Connolly, Bove, Lodge & Hutz; Wilmington, DE (PATENTS, TRADEMARKS, AND COPYRIGHTS)
M. R. M. Crespo da Silva* University of Cincinnati (ATTITUDE DYNAMICS, STABILIZATION, AND CONTROL OF SPACECRAFT)
Julian H. Dancy Consulting Engineer, Formerly Senior Technologist, Technology Division, Fuels and Lubricants Technology Department, Texaco, Inc. (LUBRICANTS AND lubrication)
Benjamin B. Dayton Consulting Physicist, East Flat Rock, NC (high-vacuum
PUMPS)
RodneyC. DeGroot ResearchPlantPathologist, ForestProductsLab., USDA (wood) Joseph C. Delibert Retired Executive, The Babcock and Wilcox Co. (STEAM BOILERS) Donald D. Dodge Supervisor, Retired, Product Quality and Inspection Technology, Manufacturing Development, Ford Motor Co. (NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING)
Joseph S. Dorson Senior Engineer, Columbus McKinnon Corp. (chain)
Michael B. Duke Chief, Solar Systems Exploration, Johnson Space Center, NASA (ASTRONOMICAL CONSTANTS OFTHESOLARSYSTEM, DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS. SPACEEN-VIRONMENT)
F. J. Edeskuty Retired Associate, Los Alamos National Laboratory (CRYOGENICS)
O. Elnan* University ofCincinnati (SPACE-VEHICLE TRAJECTORIES, FLIGHT MECHANICS, AND PERFORMANCE. ORBITAL MECHANICS)
Robert E. Eppich Vice President, Technology, American Foundrymen’s Society (IRON AND STEEL CASTINGS)
C. James Erickson* Principal Consultant, Engineering Department. E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (electrical engineering)
George H. Ewing* Retired President and ChiefExecutive Officer, Texas Eastern Gas Pipeline Co. and Transwestern Pipeline Co. (pipeline transmission)
Erich A. Farber Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus; Director, Emeritus, Solar Energy and Energy ConversionLab., University of Florida (HOT AIR ENGINES. SOLAR ENERGY. DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION)
D. W. Fellenz* University of Cincinnati (SPACE-VEHICLE TRAJECTORIES, FLIGHT MECHANICS, AND PERFORMANCE. ATMOSPHERIC ENTRY)
Arthur J. Fiehn* Late Retired VicePresident, Project OperationsDivision, Burns&Roe, Inc. (costofelectricpower)
Sanford Fleeter Professor ofMechanical Engineering and Director, Thermal Sciences andPropulsion Center, School ofMechanicalEngineering, Purdue University (JET PROPULSION AND AIRCRAFT PROPELLERS)
William L. Gamble Professor of Civi Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (CEMENT, MORTAR, AND CONCRETE. REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION)
Daniel G. Garner* Senior Program Manager, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, Atlanta, GA (nuclear power)
Burt Garofab Senior Engineer, Pittston Corp. (mines, hoists, and skips. locomotive HAULAGE, COAL MINES)
Siamak Ghofranian Senior Engineer, Rockwell Aerospace (DOCKING OF two free-FLYING SPACECRAFT)
Samuel V. Glorioso Section Chief, Metallic Materials, Johnson Space Center, NASA (stress corrosion cracking)
Norman Goldberg Consulting Engineer (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning)
David T. Goldman Deputy Manager, U.S. Department ofEnergy, Chicago Operations Office (measuringunits)
Frank E. Goodwin Vice President, Materials Science, ILZRO, Inc. (BEARING METALS.
low-melting-point metals and alloys. zinc and zinc alloys)
Don Graham Manager, Turning Programs, Carboloy, Inc. (cemented carbides) John E. Gray* ERCI Intl. (nuclearpower)
David W. Green Supervisory Research Genera Engineer, Forest Products Lab., USDA (wood)
Walter W. Guy Chief, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, Johnson Space Center, NASA (spacecraft life support and thermal management)
Harold V. Hawkins* Late Manager, Product Standards and Services, Columbus McKinnon Corp. (DRAGGING, PULLING, AND PUSHING. PIPELINE FLEXURE STRESSES) Keith L. Hawthorne Senior Assistant Vice President, Transportation Technology Center, Association of American Railroads (railway ENGINEERING)
V. T. Hawthorne Vice President, Engineering and Technical Services, American Steel Foundries (railway engineering)
J. Edmund Hay U.S. Department of the Interior (explosives)
Roger S. Hecklinger Project Director, Roy F. Weston of New York. Inc. (incineration)
Terry L. Henshaw Consulting Engineer, Battle Creek, MI (displacement pumps) Roland Hernandez Research General Engineer, Forest Products Lab., USDA (wood) Hoyt C. Hottel Professor Emeritus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (radiant HEAT TRANSFER)
R. Eric Hutz Associate; Connolly, Bove, Lodge, & Hutz; Wilmington, DE (PATENTS, TRADEMARKS, AND COPYRIGHTS)
Michael W. M. Jenkins Professor, Aerospace Design, Georgia Institute of Technology (aeronautics)
Peter K. Johnson Director, Marketing and Public Relations, Metal Powder Industries Federation (powdered metals)
Randolph T. Johnson Naval Surface Warfare Center (ROCKET FUELS)
Robert L. Johnston Branch Chief, Materials, Johnson Space Center, NASA (METALLIC MATERIALS FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS. MATERIALS FOR USE IN HIGH-PRESSURE OXYGEN SYSTEMS)
Byron M. Jones Retired Associate Professor ofElectrical Engineering, School ofEngi-neering, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (electronics)
Scott K. Jones Associate Professor, Department of Accounting, University of Delaware (cost accounting)
Robert Jorgensen Engineering Consultant (fans)
Serope Kalpakjian Professor of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology (metal removal processes and machine tools)
Igor J. Karassik Late Senior Consulting Engineer, Ingersoll-Dresser Pump Co. (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL FLOW PUMPS)
Robert W. Kennard* Lake-Sumter Community College, Leesburg, FL (ENGINEERING STATISTICS AND QUALITY CONTROL)
Edwin E. Kintner* Executive Vice President, GPU Nuclear Corp., Parsippany, NJ (NUCLEAR power)
J. Randolph Kissell Partner, The TGB Partnership (aluminum and its alloys) Andrew C. Klein Associate Professor, Nuclear Engineering, Oregon State University (environmental control. occupational safety and health. fire protection) Ezra S. Krendel Emeritus Professor of Operations Research and Statistics, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania (human factors and ergonomics. muscle generated power)
A. G. Kromis* University of Cincinnati (SPACE-VEHICLE TRAJECTORIES, FLIGHT MECHANICS, AND PERFORMANCE)
P. G. Kuchuris, Jr.* Market Planning Manager, International Harvester Co. (off-HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND EARTHMOVING EQUIPMENT)
L. D. Kunsman* Late Fellow Engineer, Research Labs., Westinghouse Electric Corp.
(nonferrous metals)
Colin K. Larsen Vice President, Blue Giant U.SA. Corp. (SURFACE HANDLING) Lubert J. Leger Deputy Branch Chief, Materials, Johnson Space Center, NASA (space environment)
John H. Lewis Technical Staff, Pratt & Whitney, Division of United Technologies Corp.; Adjunct Associate Professor, Hartford Graduate Center, Renssealear Polytechnic Institute (gas turbines)
Peter E. Liley Professor, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University (THERMODYNAMICS, THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES)
Michael K. Madsen Manager, Industrial Products Engineering, Neenah Foundry Co. (foundry PRACTICE AND equipment)
C. J. Manney* Consultant, Columbus McKinnon Corp. (hoists)
Ernst K. H. Marburg Manager, Product Standards and Service, Columbus McKinnon Corp. (lifting, hoisting, and elevating. dragging, pulling, and pushing. loading, CARRYING, AND EXCAVATING)
Adolph Matz* Late Professor Emeritus of Accounting, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania (cost accounting)
Leonard Meirovitch University Distinguished Professor, Department ofEngineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (vibration) Sherwood B. Menkes Professor ofMechanical Engineering, Emeritus, The City College, The City University of New York (flywheel ENERGY STORAGE)
George W. Michalec Consulting Engineer, Formerly Professor and Dean of Engineering and Science, Stevens Institute of Technology (gearing)
Duane K. Miller Welding Design Engineer, Lincoln Electric Co. (welding AND CUTTING)
Russell C. Moody Supervisory Research General Engineer, Forest Products Lab., USDA (wood)
Ralph L. Moore* Retired Systems Consultant, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (automatic controls)
Thomas L. Moser Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, NASAHead-quarters, NAS4 (space-vehicle structures)
George J. Moshos Professor Emeritus of Computer and Information Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology (computers)
Otto Muller-Girard Consulting Engineer (instruments)
James W. Murdock Late Consulting Engineer (mechanics offluids)
Gregory V. Murphy Process Confrol Consultant, DuPont Co. (automatic controls)
Joseph F. Murphy Supervisory General Engineer, Forest Products Lab., USDA (wood)
John Nagy Retired Supervisory Physical Scientist, U.S. Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration (dust explosions)
B. W. Niebel Professor Emeritus ofIndustrial Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University (INDUSTRIAL ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT)
Paul E. Norian Special Assistant, Regulatory Applications, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (nuclearpower)
Nunzio J. Palladino* DeanEmeritus, College of Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (nuclear power)
D. J. Patterson Professor ofMechanical Engineering, Emeritus, University ofMichigan (internal combustion engines)
Harold W. Paxton United States Steel Professor Emeritus, Carnegie Mellon University (iron and steel)
Richard W. Perkins Professor of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Manufacturing Engineering, Syracuse University (woodcuttingtools and machines)
W. R. Perry* University of Cincinnati (ORBITAL MECHANICS. SPACE-VEHICLE TRAJECTORIES, FLIGHT MECHANICS, AND PERFORMANCE)
Kenneth A. Phair Senior Mechanica Engineer, Stone and Webster Engineering Corp.
(geothermal power)
Orvis E. Pigg Section Head, Structural Analysis, Johnson Space Center, NASA (space-VEHICLE STRUCTURES)
Henry O. Pohl Chief, Propulsion and Power Division, Johnson Space Center, NASA (space propulsion)
Charles D. Potts Retired Project Engineer, Engineering Department, E. I. duPontde Nemours & Co. (electrical engineering)
R. Ramakumar Professor of Electrica Engineering, Oklahoma State University (wind power)
Pascal M. Rapier Scientist III, Retired, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (ENVIRONMENTAL control. occupational safety and health. fire protection)
James D. Redmond President, Technical Marketing Services, Inc. (STAINLESS steel) Albert H. Reinhardt Technical Staff, Pratt & Whitney, Division ofUnited Technologies Corp. (gas turbines)
Warren W. Rice Senior Project Engineer, Piedmont Engineering Corp. (MECHANICAL refrigeration)
George J. Roddam Sales Engineer, Lectromelt Furnace Division, Salem Furnace Co.
(electric furnaces and ovens)
Louis H. Roddis* Late Consulting Engineer, Charleston, SC (nuclearpower) Darrold E. Roen Late Manager, Sales & Special Engineering & Government Products, John Deere (off-highway vehicles)
Ivan L. Ross* International Manager, Chain Conveyor Division, ACCO (overhead conveyors)
Robert J. Ross Supervisory Research General Engineer, Forest Products Lab., USDA (wood)
J. W. Russell* University of Cincinnati (space-vehicle TRAJECTORIES, FLIGHT MECHANICS, AND PERFORMANCE. LUNAR- AND INTERPLANETARY-FLIGHT MECHANICS)
A. J. Rydzewski Project Engineer, Engineering Department, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (mechanical refrigeration)
C. Edward Sandifer Professor, Western Connecticut State University, Danbury, CT (mathematics)
Adel F. Sarofim Lammot du Pont Professor of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (RADIANT HEAT TRANSFER)
Martin D. Schlesinger WallingfordGroup, Ltd. (fuels)
John R. Schley Manager, Technical Marketing, RMI Titanium Co. (TITANIUM AND zirconium)
Matthew S. Schmidt Senior Engineer, Rockwell Aerospace (DOCKING OF two FREE-FLYING spacecraft)
George Sege Technical Assistant to the Director, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NUCLEAR POWER)
James D. Shearouse, III Senior Development Engineer, The Dow Chemical Co. (magnesium and magnesium alloys)
David A. Shifler Metallurgist, Naval Surface Warfare Center (CORROSION)
Rajiv Shivpuri Professor of Industrial, Welding, and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University (PLASTIC WORKING OF METALS)
William T. Simpson Research Forest Products Technologist, Forest Products Lab., USDA (wood)
Kenneth A. Smith Edward R. Gilliland Professor of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (transmission OF heat BY conduction and convecTION)
Lawrence H. Sobel* University of Cincinnati (VIBRATION OF STRUCTURES)
James G. Speight Western Research Institute (FUELS)
Ivan K. Spiker NASA, Retired (structural composites)
Robert D. Steele Manager, Turbine and Rehabilitation Design, Voith Hydro, Inc. (HYDRAULIC turbines)
Robert F. Steidel, Jr. Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Retired, University of California, Berkeley (mechanics OF solids)
Stephen R. Swanson Professor ofMechanicalEngineering, University ofUtah (FIBER COMPOSITE MATERIALS)
John Symonds Fellow Engineer, Retired, Oceanic Division, Westinghouse Electric Corp. (mechanical properties of materials)
Anton TenWolde Research Physicist, Forest Products Lab., USDA (wood)
W. David Teter Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Delaware (SURVEYING) Helmut Thielsch* President, Thielsch Engineering Associates (PIPE, PIPE FITTINGS, AND VALVES)
Michael C. Tracy Captain, U.S. Navy (marine engineering)
John H. Tundermann Vice President, Research and Technology, INCO Alloys Intl., Inc. (metals and alloys for use at elevated temperatures. nickel and nickel
ALLOYS)
Charles O. Velzy Consultant (incineration)
Harry C. Verakis Supervisory Physical Scientist, U.S. Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration (DUST EXPLOSIONS)
Arnold S. Vernick Associate, Geraghty & Miller, Inc. (water)
J. P. Vidosic Regents’ Professor Emeritus ofMechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology (mechanics ofmaterials)
Robert J. Vondrasek Assistant Vice President ofEngineering, National Fire Protection Assoc. (cost of electric power)
Michael W. Washo Engineering Associate, Eastman Kodak Co. (BEARINGS WITH ROLLING CONTACT)
Harold M. Werner* Consultant (paintsandprotectivecoatings)
Robert H. White Supervisory Wood Scientist, Forest Products Lab., USDA (wood) Thomas W. Wolff Instructor, Retired, Mechanical Engineering Dept., The City College, The City University of New York (SURFACE TEXTURE DESIGNATION, PRODUCTION, AND CONTROL)
John W. Wood, Jr. Applications Specialist, Fluidtec Engineered Products, Coltec Industries (PACKINGS AND SEALS)

Preface to the First Edition*

This Handbook is intended to supply both the practicing engineer and the student with a reference work which is authoritative in character and which covers the field of mechanical engineering in a comprehensive manner. It is no longer possible for a single individual or a small group of individuals to have so intimate an acquaintance with any major division of engineering as is necessary if critical judgment is to be exercised in the statement of current practice and the selection of engineering data. Only by the cooperation of a considerable number of specialists is it possible to obtain the desirable degree of reliability. This Handbook represents the work of fifty specialists.
Each contributor is to be regarded as responsible for the accuracy of his section. The number of contributors required to ensure sufficiently specialized knowledge for all the topics treated is necessarily large. It was found desirable to enlist the services of thirteen specialists for an adequate handling of the ‘‘Properties of Engineering Materials.’’ Such topics as ‘‘Automobiles,’’ ‘‘Aeronautics,’’ ‘‘Illumination,’’ ‘‘Patent Law,’’ ‘‘Cost Accounting,’’ ‘‘Industrial Buildings,’’ ‘‘Corrosion,’’ ‘‘Air Conditioning,’’ ‘‘Fire Protection,’’ ‘‘Prevention of Accidents,’’ etc., though occupying relatively small spaces in the book, demanded each a separate writer.
A number of the contributions which deal with engineering practice, after examination by the Editor-in-Chief, were submitted by him to one or more specialists for criticism and suggestions. Their cooperation has proved of great value in securing greater accuracy and in ensuring that the subject matter does not embody solely the practice of one individual but is truly representative.
An accuracy of four significant figures has been assumed as the desirable limit; figures in excess of this number have been deleted, except in special cases. In the mathematical tables only four significant figures have been kept.
The Editor-in-Chief desires to express here his appreciation of the spirit of cooperation shown by the Contributors and of their patience in submitting to modifications of their sections. He wishes also to thank the Publishers for giving him complete freedom and hearty assistance in all matters relating to the book from the choice of contributors to the details of typography.
Cambridge, Mass. LIONEL S. MARKS
April 23, 1916
* Excerpt.

Symbols and Abbreviations

For symbols of chemical elements, see Sec. 6; for abbreviations applying to metric weights and measures and SI units, Sec. 1; SI unit prefixes are listed on p. 1-19.
Pairs of parentheses, brackets, etc., are frequently used in this work to indicate corresponding values. For example, the statement that ‘‘the cost per kW of a 30,000-kW plant is $86; of a 15,000-kW plant, $98; and of an 8,000-kW plant, $112,’’ is condensed as follows: The cost per kW of a 30,000 (15,000) [8,000]-kW plant is $86 (98) [112].
In the citation of references readers should always attempt to consult the latest edition of referenced publications.
A or A Angstrom unit = 10“10 m; 3.937 X 10“11 in
A mass number = N + Z; ampere
AA arithmetical average
AAA Am. Automobile Assoc.
AAMA American Automobile Manufacturers’ Assoc.
AAR Assoc. of Am. Railroads
AAS Am. Astronautical Soc.
ABAI Am. Boiler & Affiliated Industries
abs absolute
a.c. aerodynamic center
a-c, ac alternating current
ACI Am. Concrete Inst.
ACM Assoc. for Computing Machinery
ACRMA Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Manufacturers Assoc.
ACS Am. Chemical Soc.
ACSR aluminum cable steel-reinforced
ACV air cushion vehicle
A.D. anno Domini (in the year of our Lord)
AEC Atomic Energy Commission (U.S.)
a-f, af audio frequency
AFBMA Anti-friction Bearings Manufacturers’ Assoc.
AFS Am. Foundrymen’s Soc.
AGA Am. Gas Assoc.
AGMA Am. Gear Manufacturers’ Assoc.
ahp air horsepower
AlChE Am. Inst. of Chemical Engineers
AIEE Am. Inst. of Electrical Engineers (see IEEE)
AIME Am. Inst. of Mining Engineers
AIP Am. Inst. of Physics
AISC American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.
AISE Am. Iron & Steel Engineers
AISI Am. Iron and Steel Inst.
a.m. ante meridiem (before noon)
a-m, am amplitude modulation
Am. Mach. Am. Machinist (New York)
AMA Acoustical Materials Assoc.
AMCA Air Moving & Conditioning Assoc., Inc.
amu atomic mass unit
AN ammonium nitrate (explosive); Army-Navy Specification
AN-FO ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (explosive)
ANC Army-Navy Civil Aeronautics Committee
ANS Am. Nuclear Soc.
ANSI American National Standards Institute
antilog antilogarithm of
API Am. Petroleum Inst.
approx approximately
APWA Am. Public Works Assoc.
AREA Am. Railroad Eng. Assoc.
ARI Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Inst.
ARS Am. Rocket Soc.
ASCE Am. Soc. of Civil Engineers
ASHRAE Am. Soc. of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning
Engineers
ASLE Am. Soc. of Lubricating Engineers
ASM Am. Soc. of Metals
ASME Am. Soc. of Mechanical Engineers
ASST Am. Soc. of Steel Treating
ASTM Am. Soc. for Testing and Materials
ASTME Am. Soc. of Tool & Manufacturing Engineers
atm atmosphere
Auto. Ind. Automotive Industries (New York)
avdp avoirdupois
avg, ave average
AWG Am. Wire Gage
AWPA Am. Wood Preservation Assoc.
AWS American Welding Soc.
AWWA American Water Works Assoc.
b barns
bar barometer
B&S Brown & Sharp (gage); Beams and Stringers
bbl barrels
B.C. before Christ
B.C.C. body centered cubic
Be Baume (degrees)
B.G. Birmingham gage (hoop and sheet)
bgd billions of gallons per day
BHN Brinnell Hardness Number
bhp brake horsepower
BLC boundary layer control
B.M. board measure; bench mark
bmep brake mean effective pressure
B of M, Bureau of Mines
BuMines
BOD biochemical oxygen demand
Оценка: 4.8 / 5 (Голосов: 10)
zxc ® 03-Окт-2012 21:52
Если нету, значит правообладатели следят за злостными копипастерами. Расскажите подробнее что это такое и для кого?
0
sergiuskerch 04-Окт-2012 21:39
admin, Очень хорошее обучающее видео, для моряков, позволяющее хорошо и не сложно обучится морским терминам и командам, просто я нашел пару уроков, а полностью весь сборник найти не могу. Думал раз какая то часть их в интернет попала, значит можно найти и остальное. Только у меня не получилось ?
0
zxc ® 04-Окт-2012 22:12
Создал раздачу http://seatracker.ru/viewtopic.php?t=322 Завтра будет доступна. Но все равно это не то.. Это обучающий курс десятилетней давности и как заверяют авторы уже давно устарел и не актуален...Но лучше чем ничего
0
vlad7773 07-Мар-2016 13:27
Бедные мальчики, а купить и овладеть языком нельзя? Умру, но буду искать даром!
Я купил и проблем не знаю - шикарная штука.
Тоже гонялся, гонялся.
Даже доволен что не нашел. А то бы скачал и так бы не узнал что новое вообще нельзя сравнивать с пиратским старьем и был бы еще долго без языка!
0
zxc ® 07-Мар-2016 14:06
20675Бедные мальчики, а купить и овладеть языком нельзя? Умру, но буду искать даром!
Я купил и проблем не знаю - шикарная штука.
Тоже гонялся, гонялся.
Даже доволен что не нашел. А то бы скачал и так бы не узнал что новое вообще нельзя сравнивать с пиратским старьем и был бы еще долго без языка!
Может потому что вы создатель этого курса Мигает
1
Похожие релизы
A Guide to P & I Cover - The Standard [200X, PDF]
A Master's Guide to Shipboard Accident Response - The Standard [20XX, PDF]
A Masters Guide To Enclosed Space Entry (Version 2, August 2017) - Standard Club [2017, PDF]
A master’s guide to Fire Safety on Ferries, Version 1, March 2018 - The Standard P&I Club [2018,…
BP Distance Tables Port to Port Standard v.2.0 [2007]
Cargo Loss Prevention Publications - The Standard Club [2014, PDF]
China ship building quality standard [2005, PDF]
GBT 34001-2016 China Ship Repairing Quality Standard - [2016, PDF]
Handbook to IEEE Standard 45: A Guide to Electrical Installations on Shipboard - Mohammed M. Islam…
IHO TRANSFER STANDARD for DIGITAL HYDROGRAPHIC DATA Edition 3.1 - Special Publication No. 57 - IHO…
  • Ответить

Текущее время: Сегодня 19:59

Часовой пояс: GMT + 3