mikelr02 ® 11-Apr-2019 18:18

Instrumentation Reference Book 4th edition


Year: 2010
Language: english
Author: Walt Boyes
Genre: Reference book
Publisher: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Edition: 4
ISBN: 978-0-7506-8308-1
Format: PDF
Quality: eBook
Pages count: 929
Description: Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.

Contents (text)

In t ro d LI c t io n xiv
Part 1: Mechanical
Measurements
1 Measurement off flow 3
Introduction. Basic principles of flow measurement.
Fluid flow in closed pipes. Flow in open channels. Point
velocity measurement. Flowmeter calibration methods.
References. Further reading.
2 Measurement of viscosity 45
Introduction. Newtonian and non-Newtonian
behavior. Measurement of the shear viscosity.
Shop-floor viscometers. Measurement of the extensional
viscosity. Measurement of viscosity under extremes of
temperature and pressure. On-line measurements.
Accuracy and range. References. Further reading.
3 Measurement of length 53
Introduction. The nature of length. Derived
measurements. Standards and calibration of length.
Practice of length measurement for industrial use.
Automatic gauging systems. References. Further reading.
4 Measurement of strain 71
Strain. Bonded resistance strain gauges. Gauge
characteristics. Installation. Circuits for strain gauges.
Vibrating wire strain gauge. Capacitive strain gauges.
Surveys of whole surfaces. Photo-elasticity. References.
5 Measurement of level and volume 81
Introduction. Practice of level measurement.
Calibration of level-measuring systems. Methods
providing full-range level measurement. Methods
providing short-range detection. References.
6 Vibration 92
Introduction. Amplitude calibration. Sensor practice.
Literature. References. Further reading.
7 Measurement of force 106
Basic concepts. Force measurement methods.
Lever-balance methods. Force-balance methods.
Hydraulic pressure measurement. Acceleration
measurement. Elastic elements. Further
developments. References.
8 Measurement of density 114
General. Measurement of density using weight.
Measurement of density using buoyancy. Measurement
of density using hydrostatic head. Measurement of
density using radiation. Measurement of density using
resonant elements. Further reading.
9 Measurement of pressure 123
What is pressure? Pressure measurement. Pressure
transmitters. References. Further reading.
10 Measurement of vacuum 144
Introduction. Absolute gauges. Non-absolute gauges.
References.
11 Particle sizing 154
Introduction. Characterization of particles. Terminal
velocity. Optical effects caused by particles. Particle
shape. Methods for characterizing a group of particles.
Analysis methods that measure size directly. Analysis
methods that measure terminal velocity. Analysis
methods that infer size from some other property.
References. Further reading.
12 Fiber optics in sensor
instrumentation 17
Introduction. Principles of optical fiber sensing.
Interferometric sensing approach. Doppler
anemometry. In-fiber sensing structures.
References.
13 Microprocessor-based
and intelligent transmitters 208
Introduction. Terminology. Background information.
Attributes and features of microprocessor-based and
intelligent transmitters. Microprocessor-based and
intelligent temperature transmitters. Microprocessorbased
and intelligent pressure and differential
transmitters. Microprocessor-based and intelligent
flowmeters. Other microprocessor-based and intelligent
transmitters. Other microprocessor-based and
intelligent measurement systems. Fieldbus. Uservi Contents
experience with microprocessor-based and intelligent
transmitters. Fieldbus function and benefits. References.
Part 2: Measurement of
Temperature and Chemical
Composition
14 Temperature measurement 239
Temperature and heat. Temperature scales.
Measurement techniques: direct effects. Measurement
techniques: electrical. Measurement techniques:
thermocouples. Measurement techniques: radiation
thermometers. Temperature measurement
considerations. References. Further reading.
15 Chemical analysis:
introduction 303
Introduction to chemical analysis. Chromatography,
Polarography and anodic stripping voltammetry.
Thermal analysis. Further reading.
16 Chemical analysis:
spectroscopy 31 8
Absorption and reflection techniques. Atomic
techniques: emission, absorption, and fluorescence.
X-ray spectroscopy. Photo-acoustic spectroscopy.
Microwave spectroscopy. Neutron activation. Mass
spectrometers. References. Further reading.
17 Chemical analysis:
electrochemical techniques 343
Acids and alkalis. Ionization of water. Electrical
conductivity. The concept of pH. Electrode potentials.
Ion-selective electrodes. Potentiometry and specific ion
measurement. Common electrochemical analyzers.
Further reading.
18 Chemical analysis: gas
analysis 382
Introduction. Separation of gaseous mixtures. Detectors.
Process chromatography. Special gas analyzers.
Calibration of gas analyzers. Further reading.
19 Chemical analysis: moisture
measurement 41 4
Introduction. Definitions. Measurement techniques
Calibration. References.
Part 3: Electrical and Radiation
Measurements
20 Electrical measurements 425
Units and standards of electrical measurement.
Measurement of d.c. and a.c. current and voltage using
indicating instruments. Digital voltmeters and digital
multimeters. Power measurement. Measurement of
electrical energy. Power-factor measurement. The
measurement of resistance, capacitance, and inductance.
Digital frequency and periodhie-interval
measurement. Frequency and phase measurement using
an oscilloscope. References. Further reading.
21 Optical measurements 492
Introduction. Light sources. Detectors. Detector
techniques. Intensity measurement. Wavelength and
color. Measurement of optical properties. Thermal
imaging techniques. References.
22 Nuclear instrumentation
technology 517
Introduction. Detectors. Electronics. References.
Further reading.
23 Measurements employing
nuclear techniques 547
Introduction. Materials analysis. Mechanical
measurements. Miscellaneous measurements.
References.
24 Non-destructive testing 566
Introduction. Visual examination. Surface-inspection
methods. Ultrasonics. Radiography. Underwater
non-destructive testing. Developments. Certification
of personnel. References. Further reading.
25 Noise measurement 596
Sound and sound fields. Instrumentation for the
measurement of sound-pressure level. Frequency
analyzers. Recorders. Sound-intensity analyzers.
Calibration of measuring instruments. The measurement
of sound-pressure level and sound level. Effect of
environmental conditions on measurements. References.
Further reading.
Part 4: Instrumentation Systems
26 Design and construction
of instruments 625
Introduction. Instrument design. Elements of
construction. Construction of electronic instruments.
Mechanical instruments. References.
27 Instrument installation and
commissioning 642
Introduction. General requirements. Storage and
protection. Mounting and accessibility. Piping systems.
Cabling. Grounding. Testing and pre-commissioning.
Plant commissioning. References.
28 Sampling 648
Introduction. Sample system components. Typical
sample systems. References.
29 Telemetry 666 Part 5: Further Scientific
Introduction. Communication channels. Signal and Technical Information
multiolexing. Pulse encoding. Carrier wave modulation. ~L -
Error detection and correction codes. Direct analog
signal transmission. Frequency transmission. Digital
953
36 Trigonometric functions and
signal transmission. References. Further reading. general formulae
Mathematical signs and symbols. Trigonometric
formulae. Trigonometric values. Approximations for
small angles. Solution of triangles. Spherical triangle.
Exponential form. De Moivre's theorem. Euler's
relation. Hyperbolic functions, Complex variable,
Cauchy-Riemann equations. Cauchy's theorem. Zeros;
poles, and residues. Some standard forms. Coordinate
systems. Transformation of integrals. Laplace's
equation. Solution of equations. Method of least
squares. Relation between decibels, current and voltage
ratio, and power ratio.
30 Display and recording 691
Introduction. Indicating devices. Light-emitting diodes
(LEDs). Liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Plasma
displays. Cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Graphical
recorders. Magnetic recording. Transienthaveform
recorders. Data loggers. References.
31 Pneumatic instrumentation 71 0
Basic characteristics. Pneumatic measurement and
control svstems. Princioal measurements. Pneumatic 37 Statistics 96
Introduction. Data presentation. Averages. Dispersion
from the average, Skewness, Combinations and
transmission. Pneumatic controllers. Signal
conditioning. Electropneumatic interface. References.
oermutations. Regression and correlation. Probabilitv. v
Probability distributions. Sampling. Tests of
32 Reliability in instrumentation significance. Further reading.
and control 734
Reliability principles and terminology. Reliability
assessmenl . System design. Building high-reliability
systems. The human operator in control and
instrumentation. Safety monitoring. Software
reliability. Electronic and avionic systems. Nuclear
reactor control systems. Process and plant control.
References.
33 Safety
Introduction. Electrocution risk. Flammable
atmospheres. Other safety aspects. Conclusion.
References. Further reading.
793
34 History of instrumentation 802
Introduction. Parts of the system. Microsoft Windows.
Traditional and graphical programming languages.
Personal computers for data acquisition (and
instrument control). Other parts of the system. Machine
vision. Industrial networks and fieldbuses. Personal
computer buses. New serial buses. Firewire" :
IEEE-1394. Older PC buses. The VXI bus. HS488:
38 Quantities and units 97
International unit system. Universal constants in SI
units. Metric to Imperial conversion factors. Symbols
and abbreviations. References.
39 Electricity 79
Introduction. Molecules, atoms, and electrons. Atomic
structure. Wave mechanics. Electrons in atoms. Energy
levels. Electrons in metals. Conductivity. Electron
emission. Electrons in crystals. Insulators.
Semiconductors. Magnetism. Simplified electrical
theories.
40 Light 98
Introduction. The optical spectrum. Basic concepts of
optical radiation. Radiometry and photometry. Units
of measurement. Practical measurements. Interaction
of light with matter. References. Further reading.
enhancing the IEEE488.1 Specification. Ethernet. 94
Virtual Instrument Software Architecture (VISA). Interchangeable
Virtual Instruments (IVI). Real-time programming.
The luture of virtual instrumentation. Further reading.
41 Radiation
Electromagnetic radiation. Nuclear radiation. Further
reading.
35 EMC 861 42 Connectors 999
Introduction. Interference coupling mechanisms.
Circuits, layout, and grounding. Interfaces. filtering,
and shielding. The regulatory framework. Further
reading. References. Further reading.
Connector housings. Connector contacts. Connector
terminations. Tooling. Mass termination connectors.
Fiber optics connectors. Radio frequency connectors.

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