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Ship’s Lifeboats: Analysis of Accident Cause and Effect and its Relationship to Seafarers’ Hazard Perception


Year: 2006
Language: english
Author: Mr. T. W. Ross
Publisher: MSc Environmental & Occupational Health and Safety Management
Format: PDF
Quality: eBook
Number of pages: 153
Description: Professional mariners will agree the sea represents an inherently hostile environment in which man is ill-suited to survive. However history shows great strides taken by technology to control and reduce the risks. Although the World’s oceans remain wild and unpredictable, modern mariners are not confronted by the hazards of disease, poor nutrition and rudimentary navigation endured by their ancestors.
Advantages include the ability to immediately request aid and the reasonable expectation of such assistance occurring in most parts of the world. In the event of the total loss of a ship, mariners have recourse to the same piece of lifesaving equipment as seafarers of old - the ship’s lifeboat. In the days of sailing vessels the lifeboat was the ship’s workhorse, used for ferrying goods and personnel, as an aid to navigation, a means of propulsion when the wind died, a rescue boat for sailors lost overboard and, most importantly, a means of survival when all else was lost.
Continual use of the lifeboats meant that they were always maintained to a high standard, with crew well practiced in launching and retrieval operations, thereby lessening the chances of accidents occurring. The greatest stories of the sea would never have been told without the chance of survival offered by the ship’s lifeboat. These basic but seaworthy craft carried Captain Bligh on his incredible 4000 nautical mile journey across the Pacific, and provided both means of rescue and shelter for Shackleton and his men after the loss of the Endurance in the pack ice. Ship’s Lifeboats: Analysis of Accident Cause and Effect and its Relationship to Seafarers’ Hazard Perception Page 10 of 153 MSc Environmental & Occupational Health & Safety Management Modern ship’s lifeboats are also designed to preserve life when all other options are exhausted. They may still be used as man-overboard (MoB) rescue boats, although research has highlighted concerns about the suitability of modern lifeboats in this role.
The difference between lifeboats of today and their historical counterparts is that, although some cruise ships still use their lifeboats to ferry passengers into small ports, lifeboats are no longer required during the everyday operation of the ship. Reliable ship’s engines, electronic navigation and deep-water ports mean that lifeboats have evolved from general workboats into dedicated pieces of safety equipment, designed and built for the specific purpose of saving lives.

Index

Index
Table of Contents:
Introduction 9
Chapter One
1.0 Project Overview 11
1.1 Hypotheses 11
1.2 Project Aims 11
1.3 Objectives 12
Chapter Two
2.0 Literature Review 13
Chapter Three
3.0 Previous Research 21
3.1 Seafarer Confidence 26
Chapter Four
4.0 Research Methods 30
4.1 Hypothesis One 30
4.2 Hypothesis Two 31
4.3 Hypothesis Three 32
Chapter Five
5.0 Accident Investigation 34
Chapter Six
6.0 Design and Management Issues 36
6.1 Design 37
6.2 Maintenance 49
6.3 Training 55
6.4 Summary 61
Ship’s Lifeboats: Analysis of Accident Cause and Effect and its Relationship to Seafarers’ Hazard Perception
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Chapter Seven
7.0 Project Questionnaire 62
7.1 Questionnaire Section One 63
7.2 Questionnaire Section Two 63
7.3 Questionnaire Section Three 64
7.4 Questionnaire Section Four 64
7.5 Questionnaire Circulation 64
Chapter Eight
8.0 Data Collection 65
8.1 Primary Data Collection 65
8.2 Secondary Data Collection 68
Chapter Nine
9.0 Data Analysis 73
9.1 Hypothesis One 73
9.2 Hypothesis One – Established Cause 73
9.3 Hypothesis One – Accident Severity 75
9.4 Hypothesis One – Final Conclusions 79
Chapter Ten
10.0 Hypothesis Two 80
10.1 Hypothesis Two – Lifeboat Components 81
10.2 Hypothesis Two – Component Conclusions 87
10.3 Hypothesis Two – Lifeboat Operations 87
10.4 Hypothesis Two – Operational Conclusions 94
10.5 Hypothesis Two – Final Conclusions 95
Chapter Eleven
11.0 Hypothesis Three 96
11.1 Hypothesis Three – Necessity of Lifeboats 96
Ship’s Lifeboats: Analysis of Accident Cause and Effect and its Relationship to Seafarers’ Hazard Perception
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11.2 Hypothesis Three – Necessity Conclusions 101
11.3 Hypothesis Three – General Drills 103
11.4 Hypothesis Three – General Drills Conclusions 106
11.5 Hypothesis Three – Lifeboat Complexity
107
11.6 Hypothesis Three – Operational Complexity
108
11.7 Hypothesis Three – Instructional Complexity
112
11.8 Hypothesis Three – Complexity conclusions 115
11.9 Hypothesis Three – Final conclusions 116
Chapter Twelve
12.0 Conclusions 118
Chapter Thirteen
13.0 Recommendations for Further Research 122
Appendix I Acknowledgements 123
Appendix II Lifeboat Questionnaire 125
Appendix III Case Summaries 127
Appendix IV
A.4.0 Additional Data 132
A.4.1 SOLAS Legislation 133
A.4.2 Hypothesis Four 135
A.4.3 Perception of Lifeboat Drills 135
A.4.4 Perception of Maintenance Issues 137
References 140
Ship’s Lifeboats: Analysis of Accident Cause and Effect and its Relationship to Seafarers’ Hazard Perception
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Table of Data Tables and Graphs:
Chapter Two
2.0.1 Casualty Rates in Abandoning Ships 13
2.0.2 Lifeboat vs Liferaft in Adverse Weather 15
Chapter Three
3.0.1 Fatal Accidents 1989 – 1999 21
3.0.2 Primary Cause of Accidents 24
Chapter Six
6.3.1 Activity at the Time of Accident – 1994 55
6.3.2 Activity at the Time of Accident – 2000 56
Chapter Eight
8.1.1 Rank of Respondents 66
8.1.2 Experience in Years 66
8.1.3 Type of Lifeboat 67
8.1.4 Previous History 67
8.1.5 Design of Lifeboat 68
8.2.1 Type of Investigation 69
8.2.2 Year of Incident 69
8.2.3 Industry Type 70
8.2.4 Flag State 70
8.2.5 Investigating State 71
8.2.6 Type of Launch System 71
8.2.7 Location 72
Chapter Nine
9.2.1 Accident Cause Frequency 74
9.2.2 Accident Cause 74
9.3.1 Accident Severity Frequency 75
Ship’s Lifeboats: Analysis of Accident Cause and Effect and its Relationship to Seafarers’ Hazard Perception
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9.3.2 Accident Severity 76
9.3.3 Accident Severity – All Causes 77
9.3.4 Accident Severity – Selected Causes 78
9.3.5 Accident Severity – Selected Causes (Graph) 78
Chapter Ten
10.1.1 Lifeboat System Failure Frequency – All
Components
81
10.1.2 Lifeboat System Failure Frequency – Selected
Components
82
10.1.3 On-Load Hooks 83
10.1.4 Winch Mechanisms 83
10.1.5 Bowsing and Tricing Systems 84
10.1.6 Falls/Sheaves/Blocks 84
10.1.7 Davit Arrangements 85
10.1.8 Component Hazard Perception Analysis 86
10.1.9 Component Hazard Analysis 86
10.3.1 Accident Investigations – All Causes 88
10.3.2 Accident Investigations – Selected Causes 89
10.3.3 Launching 91
10.3.4 Recovery 91
10.3.5 Boarding/Disembarking 92
10.3.6 Manoeuvering 92
10.3.7 Operational Hazard Perception Analysis 93
10.3.8 Operational Hazard Analysis 94
Chapter Eleven
11.1.1 Lifeboats are Essential 97
11.1.2 Lifeboats are Outdated 98
Ship’s Lifeboats: Analysis of Accident Cause and Effect and its Relationship to Seafarers’ Hazard Perception
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11.1.3 Further Research Required 99
11.1.4 Suitability as Rescue Boats 100
11.1.5 Necessity of Lifeboats 101
11.3.1 General Drills Safety (Non-Launch Party) 104
11.3.2 General Drills Safety (Launch Party) 105
11.3.3 General Drills Safety (Combined) 106
11.6.1 Lifeboat Complexity 108
11.6.2 Release Gear 109
11.6.3 Bowsing and Tricing 110
11.6.4 Winch Systems 111
11.6.5 Lifeboat Operational Complexity 112
11.7.1 Adequacy of Maintenance Instructions 113
11.7.2 Clarity of Maintenance Instructions 114
11.7.3 Lifeboat Instructional Complexity 115
Appendix IV
A4.3.1 Safety of Drills 136
A4.3.2 Effectiveness of Drills 136
A4.3.3 Perception of Safety of Lifeboat Drills 137
A4.4.1 Specialist Maintenance Training 138
A4.4.2 External Maintenance 138
A4.4.3 Perception of Safety of Lifeboat Maintenance 139
Ship’s Lifeboats: Analysis of Accident Cause and Effect and its Relationship to Seafarers’ Hazard Perception
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Table of Illustrations and Photographs:
Introduction
0.1 Checking an Inverted Lifeboat 10
Chapter Two
2.0.3 Open Lifeboat 20
Chapter Three
3.1.1 Totally Enclosed Lifeboat 29
Chapter Four
4.3.1 Inverted Lifeboat 33
Chapter Six
6.0.1 Lifeboat Dangles from Fall 36
6.1.1 Lifeboat Secured in Stowed Position 37
6.1.2 Lifeboat Davit Arrangements (Stowed) 38
6.1.3 Lifeboat Davit Arrangements (Embarkation) 38
6.1.4 Lifeboat On-Load Release System 40
6.1.5 Lifeboat On-Load Release Hook 45
6.1.6 Lifeboat On-Load Release Hook Cam 45
6.1.7 SAFELAUNCH On-Load Release Hook 48
6.2.1 Lifeboat Davit Arrangement (Maintenance) 50
6.2.2 Lifeboat on Maintenance Tackles 54
6.3.3 Lifeboat Training Facility 60
6.4.1 Recovery of Inverted Lifeboat 61
Chapter Nine
9.4.1 Davit Launched Lifeboat 79
Chapter Eleven
11.9.1 Free-fall Lifeboat 117
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