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Maritime Engineering Reference Book (a guide to ship design, construction and operation)


Year: 2008
Language: english
Author: Tony Molland
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd.
ISBN: 978-0-7506-8987-8
Format: PDF
Quality: Scanned pages
Number of pages: 907
Description: Maritime engineering covers a wide range of scientific, technical and engineering topics, with supporting input on economic, legal and insurance matters. The Maritime Engineering Reference Book is designed to serve as a first point of reference for those wishing to know the basics and background information in the field of maritime engineering and to provide accessible references for those who wish to read about particular subjects in more detail.
This book is aimed at a broad readership including practicing naval architects, marine engineers and seagoing officers, together with scientists and engineers not specialized in the maritime field. It should be of use to students of naval architecture, ship science and marine engineering, and other science and engineering students with interests in marine matters. It should also appeal to others involved with maritime operations including financial and legal work, surveying, insurance and marine policy.
The contents have been chosen to provide an overview of maritime engineering, covering the physical features of the marine environment, marine vehicle types, ship and marine vehicle design, construction, operation and safety.
The extracts have been taken directly from the above source books, with some small editorial changes and additions. These changes have entailed the re-numbering of Sections and Figures, the linking of Sections within a Chapter, cross-referencing between Chapters and the insertion of additional and more recent references where appropriate. In view of the breadth of content and style of the source books, there is some overlap and repetition of material between Chapters and significant differences in style, but these features have been left in order to retain the flavour and readability of the individual Chapters.-The Chapters can be studied independently, depending on the interests of the reader. References
are provided at the end of each Chapter to facilitate access to some of the original sources of information and further depth of study where necessary.
Grateful appreciation is extended to the twenty-five authors of the source books from which this Reference Book has been compiled.
The Editor acknowledges the help and support of Lyndsey Dixon, Associate Editor, and her team for guidance in establishing the structure of the book and in bringing the book to publication.

The book is arranged into 12 Chapters:

1 The marine environment
2 Marine vehicle types
3 Flotation and stability
4 Ship structures
5 Powering
6 Marine engines and auxiliary machinery
7 Seakeeping
8 Manoeuvring
9 Ship design, construction and operation
10 Underwater vehicles
11 Marine safety
12 Glossary of terms and definitions

The book has been compiled using...

The book has been compiled using extracts from the following twenty books within the range of maritime books in the Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann collection:
Barrass, C.B. and Derrett, D.R. (2006) Ship Stability for Masters and Mates.
Barrass, C.B. (2004) Ship Design and Performance for Masters and Mates.
Bertram, V (1998) Practical Ship Hydrodynamics. Biran, A.B. (2003) Ship Hydrostatics and Stability. Carlton, J.S. (2007) Marine Propellers and Propulsion, 2nd Edition.
Christ, R.D. and Wemli, R.L. (2007) The ROV Manual.
Eyres, D.J. (2007) Ship Construction, 6th Edition.
Jensen, J.J. (2001) Load and Global Response of Ships.
Kobylinski, L.K. and Kastner, S. (2003) Stability and Safety of Ships.
Kristiansen, S. (2004) Maritime Transportation: Safety Management and Risk Analysis.
McGeorge, H.D. (1999) Marine Auxiliary Machinery, 7th Edition.
Molland, A.F. and Turnock, S.R. (2007) Marine Rudders and Control Surfaces.
Pillay, A. and Wang, J. (2003) Technology and Safety of Marine Systems.
Rawson, K.J. and Tupper, E.C. (2001) Basic Ship Theory, 5th Edition.
Schneekluth, H. and Bertram, V (1998) Ship Design for Efficiency and Economy.
Shenoi, R.A. and Dodkins, A.R. (2000) Design of Ships and Marine Structures Made from FRP Composite Materials, in Kelly. A. and Zweben, C. (eds), Comprehensive Composite Materials, Vol. 6, Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
Taylor, D.A. (1996) Introduction to Marine Engineering.
Tupper, E.C. (2004) Introduction to Naval Architecture, 4th Edition.
Watson, D.G.M. (1998) Practical Ship Design. Woodyard, D.F. (2004) Pounder’s Marine Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines, 8th Edition.

Contents

Contents
Preface xvii 1.14.2.10 Light and other
electro-magnetic
transmissions
1 The marine environment 1 through water
1.1 The ship in the marine environment 3 1.14.2.11 Pressure
1.2 Wind 3 1.14.2.12 Salt water and
1.3 Variations in level of sea surface 4 salinity
1.4 Regular waves 5 1.14.2.13 Solar radiation
1.4.1 The trochoid 5 1.14.2.14 Sonic velocity and
1.4.2 Higher order waves. sound channels
Stokes and Airy Theory 5 1.14.2.15 Turbidity
1.5 The sinusoidal wave 7 1.14.2.16 Viscosity
1.5.1 Basic relationships to describe 1.14.2.17 Water quality
regular waves in deep water 7 1.14.2.18 Water temperature
1.5.2 Normal dispersion of 1.14.3 Coastal zone classifications a
a wave field 8 bottom types
1.5.3 Orbital motion of water 1.15 Ambient air
particles in a wave 9 1.16 Climatic extremes
1.6 Irregular waves Ю 1.17 Marine pollution
1.7 Spectrum formulae by References
Pierson/Moskowitz and Bretschneider 12
1.8 The JONSWAP sea spectrum 13
1.9 Maximum wave height in a stationary 2 Marine vehicle types
random sea 13 2.1 Overview
1.10 Long-term statistics of irregular seaway 16 2.2 Merchant ships
1.11 Wave data from observations 17 2.2.1 General cargo ships
1.12 Wave climate 18 2.2.2 Container ships
1.13 Freak waves 20 2.2.3 Roll-on roll-off ships
1.14 Oceanography 21 (Ro-Ro ships)
1.14.1 Distribution of water on earth 22 2.2.4 Car carriers
1.14.2 Properties of water 22 2.2.5 Bulk cargo carriers
1.14.2.1 Chlorophyll 22 2.2.5.1 Tankers
1.14.2.2 Circulation 23 2.2.5.2 Dry bulk carriers
1.14.2.3 Compressibility 24 2.2.6 Passenger ships
1.14.2.4 Conductivity 25 2.2.7 Tugs
1.14.2.5 Density 25 2.2.8 Icebreakers and ice
1.14.2.6 Depth 27 strengthened ships
1.14.2.7 Dissolved gases 28 2.2.9 Fishing vessels
1.14.2.8 Freshwater 30 2.3 High speed craft
1.14.2.9 Ionic concentration 30 2.3.1 Monohulls
2.3.2 Surface effect ships (SESs) 64 3.7.4 Cross curves of stability 91
2.3.3 Hydrofoil craft 64 3.7.5 Curves of statical stability
2.3.4 Multi-hulled vessels 65 from cross curves 91
2.3.5 Rigid inflatable boats (RIBs) 66 3.7.6 Features of the statical
2.3.6 Comparison of high speed types 66 stability curve 91
2.4 Yachts 66 3.8 Weight movements 92
2.5 Warships 68 3.8.1 Transverse movement
2.5.1 Stealth 68 of weight 92
2.5.2 Sensors 68 3.9 Dynamical stability 93
2.5.3 Own ship weapons 68 3.10 Flooding and damaged stability 94
2.5.4 Enemy weapons 69 3.10.1 Background 94
2.5.5 Sustaining damage 69 3.10.2 Sinkagc and trim when a
2.5.6 Vulnerability studies 69 compartment is open to the sea 94
2.5.7 Types of warship 70 3.10.3 Stability in the damaged condition 96
2.5.7.1 Frigates and destroyers 70 3.10.4 Asymmetrical flooding 96
2.5.12 Mine countermeasures 3.10.5 Floodable length 96
vessels 70 3.11 Intact stability regulations 98
2.5.7.3 Submarines 71 3.11.1 Introduction 98
References 73 3.11.2 The 1MO code
on intact stability 98
3.11.2.1 Passenger and
cargo ships 98
3 Flotation and stability 75 3.11.2.2 Cargo ships carrying
3.1 Equilibrium 77 timber deck cargoes 101
3.1.1 Equilibrium of a body floating 3.11.2.3 Fishing vessels 101
in still water 77 3.11.2.4 Mobile offshore
3.1.2 Underwater vol ume 77 drilling units 101
3.2 Stability at small angles 79 3.11.2.5 Dynamically supported
3.2.1 Concept 79 craft 101
3.2.2 Transverse mctaccntre 81 3.11.2.6 Container ships greater
3.2.3 Transverse mctacentrc for simple than 100 m 102
geometrical forms 82 3.11.2.7 Icing 102
3.2.4 Metacentric diagrams 83 3.11.2.8 Inclining and
3.2.5 Longitudinal stability 83 rolling tests 102
3.3 Hydrostatic curves 84 3.11.2.9 High-speed craft 102
3.3.1 Surface ships 84 3.11.3 Regulations of the US Navy 103
3.3.2 Fully submerged bodies 84 3.11.4 Regulations of the UK Navy 106
3.4 Problems in trim and stability 85 3.11.5 A criterion for sail vessels 107
3.4.1 Determination of displacement 3.11.6 A Code of practice for small
from observed draughts 85 workboats and pilot boats 108
3.4.2 Longitudinal position of the 3.11.7 Regulations for
centre of gravity 85 internal water vessels 109
3.4.3 Direct determination of 3.11.7.1 EC regulations 109
displacement and 3.11.7.2 Swiss regulations 109
position of G 86 3.11.8 Summary of intact stability
3.4.4 Heel due to moving weight 86 regulations 109
3.4.5 Wall-sided ship 86 3.12 Damage stability regulations 110
3.4.6 Suspended weights 87 3.12.1 SOLAS 110
3.5 Free surfaces 87 3.12.2 Probabilistic regulations 111
3.5.1 Efleet of liquid free surfaces 87 3.12.3 The US Navy 112
3.6 The inclining experiment 88 3.12.4 The UK Navy 113
3.7 Stability at large angles 89 3.12.5 The German Navy 113
3.7.1 Atwood’s formula 89 3.12.6 A code for large commercial
3.7.2 Curves of statical stability 89 sailing or motor vessels 114
3.7.3 Metacentric height in the lolled 3.12.7 A code for small workboats
condition 91 and pilot boats 114
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Contents vii
3.12.8 EC regulations for internal water 4.2.1.2 Loading and failure 149
vessels 114 4.2.1.3 Structural units of a ship 150
References 114 4.2.2 Stiffened plating 151
4.2.2.1 Simple beams 151
4.2.2.2 Grillages 151
Ship structures 116 4.2.2.3 Swedged plating 155
4.1 Main hull strength П8 4.2.2.4 Comprehensive
4.1.1 Introduction 118 treatment
4.1.2 The standard calculation 119 of stiffened plating 155
4.1.2.1 The wave 120 4.2.3 Panels of plating 155
4.1.2.2 Weight distribution 121 4.2.3.1 Behaviour of panels
4.1.2.3 Buoyancy and under lateral loading 155
balance 122 4.2.3.2 Available results for
4.1.2.4 Loading, shearing force flat plates under lateral
and bending moment 123 pressure 156
4.1.2.5 Second moment of area 123 4.2.3.3 Buckling of panels 159
4.1.2.6 Bending stresses 125 4.2.4 Frameworks 159
4.1.2.7 Shear stresses 126 4.2.4.1 Overview 159
4.1.2.8 Influence lines 126 4.2.4.2 Methods of analysis 161
4.1.2.9 Changes to section 4.2.4.3 Elastic stability of
modulus 129 a frame 166
4.1.2.10 Slopes and deflections 129 4.2.4.4 End constraint 167
4.1.2.11 Horizontal flexure 130 4.2.5 Finite element analysis (FEA) 168
4.1.2.12 Behaviour of a hollow 4.2.6 Realistic assessment of structural
box girder 130 elements 169
4.1.2.13 Wave pressure 4.2.7 Composite materials 170
correction 131 4.3 Ship vibration 171
4.1.2.14 Longitudinal strength 4.3.1 Overview 171
standards by rule 132 4.3.2 Flexural vibrations 172
4.1.2.15 Full scale trials 134 4.3.3 Torsional vibrations 172
4.1.2.16 The nature of failure 134 4.3.4 Coupling 172
4.1.2.17 Realistic assessment of 4.3.5 Formulae for ship vibration 173
longitudinal strength 135 4.3.6 Direct calculation of vibration 173
4.1.2.18 Realistic assessment of 4.3.7 Approximate formulae 174
loading longitudinally 136 4.3.8 Amplitudes of vibration 175
4.1.2.19 Real istic structural 4.3.9 Checking vibration levels 175
response 137 4.3.10 Reducing vibration 175
4.1.2.20 Assessment of structural 4.3.11 Propeller-induced forces 175
safety' 140 4.3.12 Vibration testing of equipment 178
4.1.2.21 Hydroelastic analysis 142 References 178
4.1.2.22 Slamming 142
4.1.3 Material considerations 142
4.1.3.1 Geometrical 5 Powering 181
discontinuities 142 5.1 Resistance and propulsion 183
4.1.3.2 Built-in stress 5.1.1 Froude s analysis procedure 183
concentrations 143 5.1.2 Components of calm
4.1.3.3 Crack extension, brittle water resistance 184
fracture 144 5.1.2.1 Wave making
4.1.3.4 Fatigue 146 resistance Rw 184
4.1.3.5 Discontinuities in 5.1.2.2 The contribution of
structural design 147 the bulbous bow 188
4.1.3.6 Superstructures and 5.1.2.3 Transom
deckhouses 147 immersion resistance 190
4.2 Structural design and analysis 149 5.1.2.4 Viscous form resistance 190
4.2.1 Introduction 149 5.1.2.5 Naked hull skin friction
4.2.1.1 Overview 149 resistance I9l
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viii Contents
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5.1.2.6 Appendage skin friction 192 5.6 Propeller design 282
5.1.2.7 Viscous resistance 192 5.6.1 The design and analysis loop 282
5.1.3 Methods of resistance evaluation 195 5.6.2 Design constraints 283
5.1.3.1 Traditional and standard 5.6.3 Choice of propeller type 284
scries analysis methods 195 5.6.4 The propeller design basis 287
5.1.3.2 Regression-based methods 197 5.6.5 Use of standard series data in
5.1.3.3 Direct model tests 200 design 292
5.1.3.4 Computational fluid 5.6.5.1 Determination of diameter 292
dynamics 206 5.6.5.2 Determination of mean
5.1.4 Propulsive coefficients 210 pitch ratio 293
5.1.4.1 Relative rotative efficiency 211 5.6.5.3 Determination of open
5.1.4.2 Thrust deduction factor 211 water efficiency 293
5.1.4.3 Hull efficiency 212 5.6.5.4 Required propeller rpm to
5.1.4.4 Quasi-propulsive coefficient 213 give required PD or PE 293
5.1.5 Influence of rough water 213 5.6.5.5 Determination of propeller
5.1.6 Restricted water effects 214 thrust at given conditions 295
5.1.7 High-speed hull form resistance 215 5.6.5.6 Effects of cavitation 295
5.1.7.1 Standard series data 216 5.6.6 Design considerations 295
5.1.7.2 Model test data 216 5.6.6.1 Direction of rotation 295
5.1.7.3 Summary of problems for 5.6.6.2 Blade number 297
fast and unconventional 5.6.6.3 Diameter, pitch-diameter
ships 217 ratio and rotational speed 298
5.1.8 Air resistance 220 5.6.6.4 Blade area ratio 298
5.2 Wake 220 5.6.6.5 Section form 299
5.2.1 General wake field characteristics 220 5.6.6.6 Cavitation 299
5.2.2 Wake field definition 222 5.6.6.7 Skew 299
5.2.3 The nominal wake field 223 5.6.6.8 Hub form 299
5.2.4 Estimation of wake field parameters 225 5.6.6.9 Shaft inclination 300
5.2.5 Effective wake field 228 5.6.6.10 Duct form 300
5.2.6 Wake field scaling 230 5.6.6.11 The balance between
5.3 Propeller performance characteristics 233 propulsion efficiency and
5.3.1 General open water characteristics 233 cavitation effects 300
5.3.2 Effect of cavitation on open 5.6.6.12 Propeller tip
water characteristics 239 considerations 301
5.3.3 Propeller scale effects 239 5.6.6.13 Propellers operating
5.3.4 Specific propeller open water in partial hull tunnels 302
characteristics 243 5.6.6.14 Composite propeller
5.3.4.1 Fixed pitch propellers 243 blades 302
5.3.4.2 Controllable pitch 5.6.6.15 The propeller basic
propellers 243 design process 303
5.3.4.3 Ducted propellers 245 5.6.7 The design process 303
5.3.4.4 High-speed propellers 246 5.7 Service performance and analysis 309
5.3.5 Standard series data 246 5.7.1 Effects of weather 309
5.4 Propeller theories 247 5.7.2 Hull roughness and fouling 309
5.4.1 Early theories 247 5.7.3 Hull drag reduction 317
5.4.2 Lifting surface models 248 5.7.4 Propeller roughness and fouling 317
5.4.3 Lifting-linc-lifting-surfacc 5.7.5 Generalized equations for the
hybrid models 249 roughness-induced power
5.4.4 Vortex lattice methods 250 penalties in ship operation 321
5.4.5 Boundary element methods 254 5.7.6 Monitoring ship performance 324
5.4.6 Methods for specialist propulsors 256 References 334
5.4.7 Computational fluid dynamics
methods 258
5.5 Cavitation 259 6 Marine engines and auxiliary
5.5.1 The basic physics of cavitation 260 machinery 344
5.5.2 Types of cavitation experienced 6.1 Introduction 346
by propellers 265 6.2 Propulsion systems 346
5.5.3 Cavitation considerations in design 272 6.2.1 Fixed pitch propellers 346
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Contents ix
6.2.2 Ducted propellers 348 6.5.2.3 Cycles and efficiency 406
6.2.3 Podded and azimuthing 6.5.2.4 Emissions 409
propulsors 350 6.5.2.5 Lubrication 410
6.2.4 Contra-rotating propellers 351 6.5.2.6 Air filtration 411
6.2.5 Overlapping propellers 352 6.5.2.7 Marine gas turbine
6.2.6 Tandem propellers 353 designs 412
6.2.7 Controllable pitch propellers 353 6.5.3 Steam turbines 414
6.2.8 Watcrjct propulsion 356 6.5.3.1 Introduction 414
6.2.9 Cycloidal propellers 357 6.5.3.2 Turbine types 414
6.2.10 Paddle wheels 357 6.5.3.3 Astern arrangements 416
6.2.11 Magnetohydrodynamic 6.5.3.4 Turbine construction 416
propulsion 359 6.6 Auxiliary machinery and equipment 417
6.2.12 Superconducting motors Гог 6.6.1 Ship service systems 418
marine propulsion 362 6.6.1.1 Bilge systems 418
6.3 Diesel engine performance 362 6.6.1.2 Oil/water separators 420
6.3.1 Rating 362 6.6.1.3 Ballast arrangements 425
6.3.2 Maximum rating 362 6.6.1.4 Domestic water
6.3.3 Exhaust temperatures 364 systems 426
6.3.4 Derating 365 6.6.1.5 Sewage systems 436
6.3.5 Mean effective pressures 365 6.6.1.6 Incinerators 439
6.3.6 Propeller slip 365 6.6.2 Shafting and propellers 439
6.3.7 Propeller law 366 6.6.2.1 Overview 439
6.3.8 Fuel coefficient 366 6.6.2.2 Thrust block 440
6.3.9 Admiralty coefficient 366 6.6.2.3 Shaft bearings 443
6.3.10 Apparent propeller slip 367 6.6.2.4 Stcrntubc bearing 443
6.3.11 Propeller performance 367 6.6.2.5 Sterntubc seals 444
6.3.12 Power build-up 367 6.6.2.6 Shafting 444
6.3.13 Trailing and locking of 6.6.2.7 Propeller 444
propeller 368 6.6.2.8 Propeller mounting 445
6.3.14 Astern running 368 6.6.2.9 Controllable-pitch
6.4 Engine and plant selection 370 propeller 445
6.4.1 Introduction 370 6.6.2.10 Cavitation 445
6.4.2 Diesel-mechanical drives 373 6.6.2.11 Propeller maintenance 445
6.4.2.1 Overview 373 6.6.3 Steering gear 446
6.4.2.2 Auxiliary power 6.6.3.1 Overview 446
generation 373 6.6.3.2 Variable delivery pumps 448
6.4.2.3 Geared drives 374 6.6.3.3 Telemotor control 448
6.4.2.4 Father-and-son layouts 374 6.6.3.4 Electrical control 450
6.4.3 Diesel-electric drive 375 6.6.3.5 Power units 452
6.4.3.1 Overview 375 6.6.3.6 All-electric steering 458
6.4.3.2 Flexibility of layout 377 6.6.3.7 Twin-system steering
6.4.3.3 Load diversity 378 gears 458
6.4.3.4 Economical 6.6.3.8 Steering gear testing 461
part load running 378 6.7 Instrumentation and control 461
6.4.3.5 Ease of control 379 6.7.1 Instrumentation 461
6.4.3.6 Low noise 379 6.7.2 Control 462
6.4.3.7 Environmental protection 6.7.2.1 Control theory 462
and ship safety 379 6.7.2.2 Transmitters 463
6.4.3.8 Podded propulsors 379 6.7.2.3 Controller action 465
6.4.3.9 Combined systems 380 6.7.2.4 Controllers 467
6.5 Propulsion engines 381 6.7.2.5 Correcting unit 469
6.5.1 Diesel engines 381 6.7.2.6 Control systems 470
6.5.1.1 Low speed engines 381 6.7.2.7 Centralized control 475
6.5.1.2 Medium speed engines 390 6.7.2.8 Unattended
6.5.1.3 High speed engines 399 machinery spaces 475
6.5.2 Gas turbines 403 6.7.2.9 Bridge control 475
6.5.2.1 Overview 403 6.7.2.10 Integrated control 480
6.5.2.2 Plant configurations 404 References 481
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7 Seakeeping 483 7.2.11.16 Relevant frequencies
7.1 Seakeeping qualities 485 of the spectrum and
7.1.1 Motions 485 encounter 523
7.1.2 Speed and power in waves 485 7.2.11.17 Bandwidth of the
7.1.3 Wetness 485 transformed sea
7.1.4 Slamming 485 spectrum 526
7.1.5 Ship routing 485 7.2.11.18 Irregular time series
7.1.6 Importance of good of wave encounter 527
scakccping 485 7.3 Limiting seakeeping criteria 529
7.2 Ship motions 486 7.3.1 Limiting critera 529
7.2.1 Degrees of freedom 486 7.3.1.1 Speed and power
7.2.2 Undamped motion in still water 486 in waves 530
7.2.2.1 Rolling 487 7.3.1.2 Slamming 531
7.2.2.2 Heaving 487 7.3.1.3 Wetness 537
7.2.3 Damped motion in still water 488 7.3.1.4 Propeller emergence 537
7.2.4 Approximate period of roll 488 7.3.1.5 Degradation of
7.2.5 Motion in regular waves 489 human performance 537
7.2.5.1 Assumptions 489 7.4 Overall seakeeping performance 538
1.2.52 Rolling in a beam sea 489 7.5 Data for scakccping assessments 541
7.2.5.3 Pitching and heaving 490 7.5.1 Selection of wave data 541
7.2.6 Presentation of motion data 490 7.5.2 Obtaining response
7.2.7 Motion in irregular seas 492 amplitude operators 543
7.2.8 Motion in oblique seas 496 7.5.2.1 Theory 543
7.2.9 Surge, sway and yaw 496 7.5.2.2 Model experiments 543
7.2.9.1 Surge 497 7.5.2.3 Ship trials 544
7.2.9.2 Sway 497 7.6 Non-linear effects 544
7.2.9.3 Yaw 497 7.7 Numerical prediction of scakccping 545
7.2.10 Large amplitude rolling 497 7.7.1 Overview of computational
7.2.11 Roll excitation and influence methods 545
of speed and heading 499 7.7.2 Strip theory 547
7.2.11.1 Motion directions 7.7.3 Rankine singularity methods 551
of rigid body 499 7.7.4 Problems for fast and
7.2.11.2 Mass moment unconventional ships 552
of inertia 501 7.7.5 Further quantities in regular
7.2.11.3 Linear restoring waves 554
moment 501 7.7.6 Ship responses in stationary
7.2.11.4 Natural roll period 502 seaway 555
7.2.11.5 Roll damping 503 7.7.7 Simulation methods 556
7.2.11.6 GM-T0 relationship 7.7.8 Long-term distributions 557
and rolling period 7.8 Experiments and trials 558
test 504 7.8.1 Test facilities 558
7.2.11.7 Modes of roll excitation 7.8.2 Ship seakeeping trials 558
in a seaway 505 7.8.3 Stabilizer trials 560
7.2.11.8 Ship roll in beam seas 506 7.9 Improving seakceping performance 560
7.2.11.9 Roll in beam seas at 7.9.1 Design and operational changes 560
large amplitudes 508 7.9.2 Influence of form on seakeeping 561
7.2.11.10 GZ-Variation in 7.9.3 Summary 561
longitudinal waves 509 7.10 Ship motion control 562
7.2.11.11 Encounter period of ship 7.10.1 Background 562
and waves 513 7.10.2 Roll stabilization 562
7.2.11.12 Encounter frequency 515 7.10.2.1 Stabilization systems 562
7.2.11.13 Wave group of two 7.10.2.2 Comparison of
regular waves 515 principal systems 564
7.2.11.14 Wave encounter of a 7.10.2.3 Performance of
ship in irregular seas 521 stabilizing systems 564
7.2.11.15 Wave energy and 7.10.2.4 Fin stabilizers:
encounter spectra 523 Design procedure 567
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Contents xi
7.10.3 Pitch damping 573
7.10.3.1 Pitch damping fins 573
7.10.3.2 Transom flaps 574
7.10.3.3 Interceptors 574
References 575
8 Manoeuvring 578
8.1 General concepts 580
8.2 Directional stability 580
8.3 Stability and control of surface ships 581
8.4 Rudder action 583
8.5 Limitations of theory 584
8.6 Assessment of manoeuvrability 584
8.6.1 Turning circle 584
8.6.1.1 Drift angle 585
8.6.1.2 Advance 585
8.6.1.3 Transfer 585
8.6.1.4 Tactical diameter 585
8.6.1.5 Diameter of steady
turning circle 585
8.6.1.6 Pivoting point 585
8.7 Loss of speed on turn 586
8.8 Heel when turning 586
8.9 Turning ability 587
8.9.1 Zig-zag manoeuvre 587
8.9.2 Spiral manoeuvre 588
8.9.3 Pull-out manoeuvre 588
8.10 Standards for manoeuvring and
directional stability 589
8.11 Dynamic positioning 590
8.12 Automatic control systems 590
8.13 Ship interaction 591
8.13.1 Interaction 591
8.13.2 Ship to ground (squat)
interaction 592
8.13.3 Ship to ship interaction 593
8.13.4 Ship to shore interaction 598
8.13.5 Summary 598
8.14 Shallow watcr/'bank effects 598
8.15 Broaching 599
8.16 Experimental approaches 599
8.16.1 Manoeuvring tests
w
in sea trials 599
8.16.2 Model tests 599
8.17 CFD for ship manoeuvring 600
8.18 Stability and control of submarines 603
8.18.1 Control requirements
and equations 603
8.18.2 Experiments and trials 605
8.18.3 Design assessment 606
8.19 Rudders and control surfaces 606
8.19.1 Control surfaces and
applications 606
8.19.1.1 Rudder types 607
8.19.1.2 Hydroplanes 609
8.19.1.3 Efficiency of control
surfaces 609
8.19.2 Presentation of rudder data 609
8.19.3 Rudder design within
the ship design process 611
8.19.4 Detailed rudder design 612
8.19.4.1 Background 612
8.19.4.2 Rudder design
process 615
8.19.5 Rudder manoeuvring forces 621
8.19.5.1 Rudder forces 621
8.19.5.2 Hull upstream 621
8.19.5.3 Influence of drift angle 621
8.19.5.4 Low and zero speed
and four quadrants 622
8.19.6 Numerical modelling of
rudder 627
8.19.6.1 Available methods 627
8.19.6.2 Potential flow-
methods 627
8.19.6.3 Navicr-Stokcs
methods 628
8.19.6.4 Rudder-propeller
interaction 629
8.19.6.5 Unsteady behaviour 630
8.19.7 Guidelines for rudder design 630
References 631
9 Ship design, construction
and operation 636
9.1 Introduction 638
9.2 Ship design 638
9.2.1 Overview 638
9.2.1.1 General 638
9.2.1.2 Ship design process 639
9.2.2 Technical ship design 639
9.2.2.1 Principal requirements 639
9.2.2.2 Specification 640
9.2.3 Deadweight determined designs 641
9.2.3.1 Deadweight and
dimensions 641
9.2.3.2 Cargo capacity check 642
9.2.3.3 Summary of overall
model: Deadweight approach 643
9.2.4 Capacity (or space) determined
designs 643
9.2.4.1 Cargo ships 643
9.2.4.2 Passenger ships 643
9.2.4.3 Container ships 645
9.2.4.4 High speed passenger/
vehicle ferries 646
9.2.5 Stability check 647
9.2.6 Lightship mass estimates 649
9.2.6.1 Steel mass 649
9.2.6.2 Outfit mass 651
9.2.6.3 Machinery mass 652
9.2.6.4 Margin 652
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9.2.6.5 Masses of fast ferries 652 9.4.4.3 Computer Aided Design
9.2.6.6 Vertical centre of (C’AD)/Computer Aided
gravity (KG) 653 Manufacturing (CAM) 698
9.2.7 Design of ship lines 653 9.5 Ship economics 703
9.2.7.1 Sectional area curve 9.5.1 Shipowners and operators 703
(SAC) - definitions: 653 9.5.1.1 Types of trade 703
9.2.7.2 Modifications to 9.5.1.2 Methods of employment 704
sectional area curve 653 9.5.2 Economic criteria 705
9.2.7.3 Sectional area curve 9.5.2.1 The basis of these
transformations 654 criteria 705
9.2.7.4 Preparation of 9.5.2.2 Interest 705
body plan 655 9.5.2.3 Present worth 705
9.2.8 Statutory regulations 657 9.5.2.4 Repayment of principal 705
9.2.9 Concept design content: 9.5.2.5 Sinking fund factor 706
example 657 9.5.2.6 Net present value 706
9.3 Materials 657 9.5.2.7 Required freight rate 706
9.3.1 Introduction 657 9.5.2.8 Yield 706
9.3.2 Steel 659 9.5.2.9 Inflation and exchange
9.3.2.1 Manufacture of steel 659 rates 706
9.3.2.2 Heat treatment of steels 660 9.5.3 Operating costs 706
9.3.2.3 Steel sections 660 9.5.3.1 Capital charges 706
9.3.2.4 Shipbuilding steels 660 9.5.3.2 Capital amortization 706
9.3.2.5 High tensile steels 661 9.5.3.3 Profit and taxes 707
9.3.2.6 Corrosion resistant steels 661 9.5.3.4 Depreciation 707
9.3.2.7 Steel sandwich panels 662 9.5.3.5 Ship values 707
9.3.2.8 Steel castings 662 9.5.4 Daily running costs 707
9.3.2.9 Steel forgings 662 9.5.4.1 Crew costs 707
9.3.3 Aluminium alloy 662 9.5.4.2 Provisions and stores 707
9.3.3.1 General 662 9.5.4.3 Maintenance and repair 708
9.3.3.2 Production of 9.5.4.4 Insurance 708
aluminium 663 9.5.4.5 Administration and
9.3.3.3 Aluminium alloy general charges 708
sandwich panels 664 9.5.5 Voyage costs 708
9.3.3.4 Fire protection 665 9.5.5.1 Bunkers 708
9.3.4 Composite materials 665 9.5.5.2 Port and canal dues,
9.3.4.1 Overview 665 pilotage, towage etc. 709
9.3.4.2 Introduction 665 9.5.6 Cargo handling costs 709
9.3.4.3 Materials selection 665 9.6 Optimization in design and operation 709
9.3.4.4 Design concepts 671 9.6.1 Overview 709
9.3.4.5 Design synthesis 675 9.6.2 Introduction to methodology
9.3.4.6 External issues 682 of optimization 709
9.3.5 Corrosion 683 9.6.3 Scope of application in
9.3.5.1 Nature and forms of ship design 712
corrosion 683 9.6.4 Economic basics for optimization 713
9.3.5.2 Corrosion control 686 9.6.4.1 Discounting 713
9.3.5.3 Anti-fouling systems 688 9.6.4.2 Initial costs (building
9.3.5.4 Painting ships 689 costs) 714
9.4 Ship construction 691 9.6.4.3 Annual income and
9.4.1 Introduction 691 expenditure 715
9.4.2 Typical examples of structure 691 9.6.4.4 The ‘cost-difference’
9.4.3 Shipyard layout 691 method 716
9.4.4 Ship drawing office, Loftwork 9.6.4.5 Discontinuities in
and CAD/CAM 692 propulsion unit costs 717
9.4.4.1 Ship drawing office 692 9.6.5 Discussion of some important
9.4.4.2 Loftwork following parameters 717
drawing office 696 9.6.5.1 Width 717
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9.6.5.2 Length 717 10.4.2 Mechanical and electro/
9.6.5.3 Block coefficient 718 mechanical systems 759
9.6.5.4 Speed 719 10.4.2.1 Frame 759
9.6.6 Special cases of optimization 720 10.4.2.2 Buoyancy 759
9.6.6.1 Optimization of 10.4.2.3 Propulsion and thrust 759
repeat ships 720 10.4.3 Primary subsystems 766
9.6.6.2 Optimizing the dimensions 10.4.3.1 Lighting 766
of containerships 721 10.4.3.2 Cameras 768
9.6.7 Developments of the 10.4.3.3 Sensors 768
1980s and 1990s 722 10.4.3.4 Manipulator and
9.6.7.1 Concept exploration tool pack 770
models 722 10.4.4 Electrical considerations 770
9.6.7.2 Optimization shells 722 10.4.4.1 The tether 770
References 724 10.4.4.2 Power source 773
10.4.4.3 AC versus DC
considerations 773
10 Underwater vehicles 728 10.4.4.4 Data throughput 773
lO.l Introduction 730 10.4.4.5 Data transmission
Ю.2 A bit of history 730 and protocol 774
Ю.2.1 Introduction 730 10.4.4.6 Underwater
10.2.2 WhatisanROV? 730 connectors 774
Ю.2.3 In the beginning 731 10.4.5 Control systems 775
10.2.4 Today’s observation-class 10.4.5.1 The control station 777
vehicles 735 10.4.5.2 Motor control
10.3 ROV design 735 electronics 778
10.3.1 Underwater vehicles to ROVs 736 References 782
10.3.1.1 Power source for the
vehicle 737
10.3.1.2 Degree of autonomy 737
10.3.1.3 Communications 11 Marine safety 784
linkage to the 11.1 Background 786
vehicle 737 11.1.1 International trade and
10.3.1.4 Special-use ROVs 738 shipping 786
10.3.2 Autonomy plus: ‘Why the 11.1.2 The actors in shipping 786
tether?’ 738 11.1.3 The shipowner 786
10.3.2.1 An aircraft analogy 738 11.1.4 Safety and economy 788
10.3.2.2 Underwater vehicle 11.1.5 Maritime safety regime 789
variations 739 11.1.6 Why safety improvement
10.3.2.3 Why the tether? 739 is difficult 791
10.3.2.4 Tele-operation versus 11.1.7 The risk concept 791
remote control 739 11.1.8 Acceptable risk 792
10.3.2.5 Degrees of 11.1.9 Conflict of interest 792
autonomy 739 11.1.10 Expertise and rationality 793
10.3.3 The ROV 740 11.2 Regulatory authorities 794
10.3.3.1 What is the 11.2.1 Introduction 794
perfect ROV? 740 11.2.1.1 The structure
10.3.3.2 ROV classifications 741 of control 794
10.3.3.3 Size considerations 741 11.2.2 International maritime
10.3.3.4 Buoyancy and organization (IMO) 795
stability 741 11.2.2.1 SOLAS 795
10.3.3.5 Dynamic stability 745 11.2.2.2 International
10.3.3.6 Vehicle control 755 Convention on
10.3.3.7 Deployment Load Lines, 1966 796
techniques 757 11.2.2.3 STCW convention 796
10.4 ROV components 758 11.2.2.4 MARPOL 797
10.4.1 Introduction 758 11.2.2.5 The ISM Code 797
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11.2.3 Flag State Control 798 11.4.3.5 Preliminary hazard
11.2.3.1 The Seaworthiness Act 799 analysis (PHA) 826
11.2.3.2 De legation of Flag 11.4.3.6 What-if analysis 827
State Control 799 11.4.3.7 HAZardand
11.2.3.3 Effectiveness of Flag OPerability
State Control 799 (HAZOP) studies 827
11.2.3.4 The Flag State Audit 11.4.3.8 Fault tree analysis
Project 799 (FTA) 829
11.2.4 Port state control 800 11.4.3.9 Event tree
11.2.4.1 UNCLOS 800 analysis 834
11.2.4.2 MOUPSC 802 11.4.3.10 Markov chains 835
11.3 Classification societies 802 11.4.3.11 Failure mode, effects
11.3.1 Background 802 and critical analysis
11.3.2 Rules and regulations 805 (FMECA) 836
11.3.3 Lloyds Register 805 11.4.3.12 Other analysis
11.3.4 Lloyds Register classification methods 838
symbols 805 11.4.3.13 Conclusion 838
11.3.5 Classification of ships 11.4.4 Formal safety assessment of
operating in ice 806 ships and its relation to
11.3.6 Structural design programs 806 offshore safety case approach 839
11.3.7 Periodical Surveys 807 11.4.4.1 Offshore safety
11.3.8 Hull Planned assessment 839
Maintenance Scheme 808 11.4.4.2 Formal ship safety
11.3.9 Damage repairs 808 assessment 845
11.4 Safety of marine systems 808 11.4.4.3 Risk criteria 847
11.4.1 Introduction 808 11.4.4.4 Discussion and
11.4.1.1 Background 808 conclusion 848
11.4.1.2 Safety and reliability 11.4.5 Formal safety assessment
development in (FSA) 849
the maritime industry 808 11.4.5.1 Formal safety
11.4.1.3 Present status 809 assessment 849
11.4.1.4 Databases 809 11.5 Safety management of ship stability 853
11.4.2 Ship safety and 11.5.1 Introduction 853
accident statistics 810 11.5.1.1 Need to introduce a
11.4.2.1 Background 810 ship stability
11.4.2.2 Code of practice management system 853
for the safety of 11.5.1.2 Tools of efficient
small fishing vessels 811 stability management 853
11.4.2.3 The Fishing Vessels 11.5.1.3 The master s range of
(Safety Provisions) judgement for
Safety Rules 1975 812 operational stability
11.4.2.4 Accident data for assessment 854
fishing vessels 812 11.5.1.4 Scakccping guidance
11.4.2.5 Data analysis 816 and survivability
11.4.2.6 Containership criteria 855
accident statistics 818 11.5.2 Guidelines on in-service ship
11.4.2.7 Conclusion 821 stability 859
11.4.3 Safety analysis techniques 822 11.5.2.1 Purpose of guidelines
11.4.3.1 Background 822 for operational
11.4.3.2 Qualitative safety stability 859
analysis 822 11.5.2.2 Loading and stability
11.4.3.3 Quantitative safety manual 859
analysis 823 11.5.2.3 Guidelines on the
11.4.3.4 Cause and effect management of
relationship 825 ship stability 860
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Contents xv
11.5.2.4 Guidance to the
master for avoiding dangerous situations
in following and quartering seas 861
11.5.2.5 International safety management code (ISM) 866
11.5.3 The human factor. Maritime
education and training 867
11.5.4 Operational stability in the
future - A wishful forecast 868
References 869
12 Glossary of terms and definitions 876
12.1 Abbreviations 878
12.2 Symbols 879
12.3 Terms and definitions 881
Author Biographies 887
Index 889
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