zxc ® 08-Янв-2015 12:56

Offshore support vessels (a practical guide)


Year: 2008
Language: english
Author: Gary Ritchie Master Mariner
Publisher: The Nautical Institute
Format: PDF
Quality: eBook
Pages count: 176
Description: The book has been prepared to address the subject of multi-purpose offshore support vessels. This should not, however, be taken to mean that this document deals comprehensively with all of the concerns that will need to be addressed or even, where a particular matter is addressed, that this document sets out the only definitive view for all situations. The opinions expressed are those of the author only and are not necessarily to be taken as the policies or views of any organisation with which he has any connection.

Foreword 1

Vice President Vessels and Equipment Subsea 7 s the development of oil and gas fields heads in to ever deeper water and more hostile environments, there has been a dramatic rise in the demand for new vessels, equipment and technology capable of operating in this dramatic arena. The scale, complexity and innovation of the solutions required to solve the constantly evolving challenges of deepwater offshore construction are rarely paralleled in human history. Offshore Support Vessels operate in the harshest working conditions known to man and their reliability is of paramount importance to protect their crews, the environment and the infrastructure of the fields where they operate. A In such an exciting and complex field of engineering there is very limited reference material and so I was very pleased to read Gary Ritchie's new book that seeks to advance the reader's understanding of this subject. At a time when there is an unprecedented boom in the construction of new Offshore Support Vessels, with a corresponding peak in the demand for new personnel to join the industry, such a book could hardly be more timely. For the student or newcomer to the offshore subsea construction industry this book provides an excellent starting point and an invaluable introduction to the principles, equipment and vessels utilised in the offshore subsea construction environment. For those already in the industry, who may have learnt the hard way, this book may also serve them well if they are seeking to expand their knowledge. For other professionals, who need to gain an understanding of the offshore construction industry and its unique terminology, this is a valuable guidebook.
This book focuses on the basic principles of some of the cornerstone technologies in offshore subsea construction and should be of assistance to those either planning operations or specifying and designing new offshore support vessels. Topics covered include Dynamic Positioning Systems, Pipelay Vessel Operations, Remotely Operated Vehicles and their host support vessels. In addition Saturation Diving Vessels, Diving Equipment and Diving Operations are discussed at length. Saturation Diving is one of the original foundations of subsea construction activities and is still very relevant today, since, at the time of writing, more new diving vessels are under construction than at any time in the past. Finally, but most importantly, the author introduces some of the key international legislation and principles governing the safe, secure and environmental operation of Offshore Support Vessels.
There are many different solutions to the numerous novel problems posed to Offshore Vessel Operators as we advance into this frontier science. It is essential that all are carefully assessed, making best use of sound engineering principles, to ensure we make the right choices to protect ourselves and the environment as we sail cautiously forward. I believe that this book is a valuable contribution and hope it will provide you with a good headstart on your journey into the deep.

Foreword 2

Gary Ritchie as a work colleague for more than a decade now and have always admired his dedication to his craft, his great attention to detail and his thorough knowledge of offshore support vessel operations gained in a great part from practical experience. It is this great attention to detail and thorough knowledge which leads me to believe that there is no one better suited to compile a book on offshore support vessel operations. I
The offshore oil and gas operators depend upon various different types of offshore vessels to provide the support required to enable their particular workscopes to be performed. Although in the past there have been books written on certain types of offshore support vessels, this is the first time that such a comprehensive book covering many various different types of offshore support vessel operations has been available. In fact, there is no other book in existence which contains such a comprehensive text on up to date offshore support vessel operations.
I would recommend this book to both offshore and onshore personnel involved in offshore support vessel operations including those who are new to the industry together with those who are new to certain vessel types. This practical guide to Multi-Purpose offshore support vessels is a very valuable book containing information equally valid for offshore personnel as well as others involved in the industry and can provide valuable reference to onshore management enabling them to gain an insight into particular issues offshore.

Introduction

Offshore Industry is a varied sector within which many vessel types operate, performing numerous different tasks with often unique systems and equipment. These vessels can range from purpose built specialised ships which may, for example, only perform diving operations, to vessels which have been repeatedly converted from one vessel type to another as the nature of the business changes. As such, the subject of Multi-Purpose Offshore Support Vessels covers a very broad spectrum of vessel types and vessel operations and it is therefore very difficult to provide a definitive overview of the subject matter. T
However, there are many standard features, systems and operating practices that are applicable across the industry. It is these generic features that this book therefore proposes to introduce, whilst particular reference is made to a number of specific vessels in order to illustrate the diversity and complexity of the systems involved.
It is hoped that by presenting a general overview and introduction to Dive Support, ROV Support, Construction Support and Pipe Lay Vessels, the text will provide an insight to this specialised sector, not only for anyone planning to transfer or commence a career within the industry, but for those already established within such a diverse business.

Acknowledgements

Mark Prise of Scotgrip (UK) Limited for providing details of Scotgrip safety products. Images in section 13 are reproduced by kind permission.
Mark Williams, Human Element Development Manager, Maritime and Coastguard Agency. The images in section 13 are reproduced with permission of the Maritime and Coastguard Agency. All material remains the worldwide copyright of MCA / Crown and may not be reproduced without written permission.
Hugh Williams of the International Marine Contractors Association (IMCA) for allowing permission to use the IMCA Safety Posters 'Manual Handling' and 'Slips, Trips and Falls'. The posters are reproduced here under kind permission, courtesy of IMCA.
Figure 1.6 is reproduced by kind permission of Fuglefjellet.
The majority of the photographs contained within this book are reproduced by kind permission of Subsea 7 from their extensive database. All due care has been taken to only include photographs available from this database and any failure to correctly identify the copyright holder is unintentional.
Thank You Whoever You Are (h, Steve, Mark, Pete and Ian). For Linda, Ewan and Calum.

Contents

Foreword 1............................................................................................................................................iii
Foreword 2.............................................................................................................................................iv
Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................v
Acknowledgements ...............................................................................................................................vi
Contents..............................................................................................................................................vii
List of Figures....................................................................................................................................viii
Chapter page
1
Offshore Support Vessel Design .............................................................................................1
2
Offshore Support Vessel Design — Dive Support Vessels .................................................15
3
Offshore Support Vessel Design — ROV Support Vessels ................................................37
4
Offshore Support Vessel Design — Construction Vessels ..................................................47
5
Offshore Support Vessel Design — Pipe Lay Vessels .........................................................53
6
Diving Operations ..................................................................................................................65
7
ROV Support Vessel Operations .........................................................................................73
8
Construction Operations .......................................................................................................81
9
Pipe Lay Operations ..............................................................................................................89
10
Dynamic Positioning Systems ...............................................................................................95
11
ISM Code .............................................................................................................................107
12
ISPS Code .............................................................................................................................113
13
Shipboard Safety .................................................................................................................117
14
Environmental Management ..............................................................................................145
15
Ballast Management ............................................................................................................151
Appendix
A A Brief History of Saturation Diving Systems and ROVs .................................................155
Index ..................................................................................................................................................157
OFFSHORE SUPPORT VESSELS vii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure page
1.1
Rockwater 1 — Dive Support Vessel ................................................................................................................. 1
1.2
DSND Pelican — Dive Support Vessel ..............................................................................................................1
1.3
Toisa Polaris — Dive Support Vessel ................................................................................................................2
1.4
Kommandor Subsea — ROV Support Vessel .....................................................................................................2
1.5
Seisranger— ROV Support Vessel ....................................................................................................................3
1.6
Normand Seven — ROV Support Vessel ...........................................................................................................3
1.7
Subsea Viking— Multi-Purpose Offshore Support Vessel .................................................................................3
1.8
Subsea Viking— Multi-Purpose Offshore Support Vessel .................................................................................4
1.9
Toisa Polaris — Dive Support Vessel with Construction Capabilities ...............................................................5
1.10
Subsea Viking— 100 tonne SWL Huisman Crane ............................................................................................5
1.11
Skandi Navica — Pipe Lay Vessel ....................................................................................................................6
1.12
Seven Oceans— Pipe Lay Vessel ......................................................................................................................6
1.13
Tunnel Thruster (with guards) ...........................................................................................................................6
1.14
Stern Azimuth Thrusters ...................................................................................................................................7
1.15
Retractable Stern Azimuth Thruster ..................................................................................................................7
1.16
Seisranger— Main Propeller ............................................................................................................................8
1.17 Forvard Bridge Console ......................................................................................................................................V
1.18
Subsea Viking — Forward Bridge Console for Navigation and Transit Control ............................................... 10
1.19
Subsea Viking— Dining Facilities .....................................................................................................................11
1.20
ROV Moonpool .................................................................................................................................................11
1.21
Aft Working Moonpool fitted with Multi-Purpose Handling System (MPHS) ................................................. 12
1.22
Upper and Lower Hatch Covers for Moonpool ................................................................................................. 12
1.23
A-Frame Arrangement ....................................................................................................................................... 12
1.24
A-Frame Arrangement ....................................................................................................................................... 12
1.25
Offshore Support Vessel Helideck .................................................................................................................... 13
1.26
UK Helideck Markings ......................................................................................................................................13
1.27
Helicopter Landing Offshore ............................................................................................................................ 14
2.1
Rockwater 2— Dive Support Vessel ................................................................................................................. 15
2.2
Diver and Diving Bell ....................................................................................................................................... 15
2.3
Dive System Class Notations — Det Norske Veritas ...................................................................................... 16
2.4
Environmental Limits for Monohull Vessels — Det Norske Veritas ............................................................... 16
2.5
Environmental Limits for Semi-Submersible Vessels — Det Norske Veritas................................................... 16
2.6
Toisa Polaris — Class III Dive Support Vessel ............................................................................................... 17
2.7
Dive System Chamber Complex ....................................................................................................................... 18
2.8
Dive System Chamber Complex ....................................................................................................................... 18
2.9
Dive System Chamber and Bell Complex ......................................................................................................... 19
2.10
Living Chamber — Equipment Lock ................................................................................................................ 19
2.11
Living Chamber — Internal ..............................................................................................................................20
2.12
Storage of Gas Cylinders...................................................................................................................................21
2.13
Marking of Gas Cylinders .................................................................................................................................21
2.14
Built-in Breathing System (BIBS) face mask ...................................................................................................22
viii THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE
Figure page
2.15
Bell Mating Trunking and Clamp .....................................................................................................................24
2.16
Saturation Diving Bell ......................................................................................................................................25
2.17
Internal Diving Bell Control Panels ................................................................................................................25
2.18
Diving Bell Main Umbilical Cross-section ......................................................................................................26
2.19
Diving Bell Main Umbilical Winch ................................................................................................................26
2.20
Diver's Umbilical ............................................................................................................................................27
2.21
Saturation Diving Bell ......................................................................................................................................29
2.22
Schematic of Diving Bell, Moonpool Cursor and Overhead Trolley Arrangement .........................................30
2.23
Schematic of Diving Bell, Moonpool Cursor and Overhead Trolley Arrangement .......................................30
2.24
Guide Wire Weight ..........................................................................................................................................30
2.25
Saturation Control Room ...................................................................................................................................32
2.26
Dive Control Room ...........................................................................................................................................32
2.27
Self-Propelled Hyperbaric Lifeboat ...................................................................................................................33
2.28
Hyperbaric Lifeboat Mating ..............................................................................................................................33
2.29
Hyperbaric Lifeboat — External Marking ........................................................................................................34
2.30
Hyperbaric Lifeboat — Lifting Beam ...............................................................................................................34
2.31
Hyperbaric Evacuation Trunk Access from Living Chamber ...........................................................................35
2.32
Diver's Personal Equipment — Helmet .............................................................................................................36
3.1
Kommandor Subsea — ROV Support Vessel ...................................................................................................37
3.2
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle .....................................................................................................................38
3.3
Hercules Workclass ROV ..................................................................................................................................39
3.4
Centurion HD Workclass ROV .........................................................................................................................39
3.5
SeaeyeTiger Observation Class ROV ................................................................................................................39
3.6
Workclass ROV Frame ......................................................................................................................................40
3.7
Buoyancy Modules ............................................................................................................................................40
3.8
Centurion ROV— Thruster Units .....................................................................................................................41
3.9
ROV Unit with Manipulators ............................................................................................................................42
3.10
Titan 4 Manipulator ...........................................................................................................................................42
3.11
Tooling Skid ......................................................................................................................................................43
3.12
ROV and Tooling Skid ......................................................................................................................................43
3.13
ROV Deployment and Main Umbilical ............................................................................................................43
3.14
Observation Class ROV with TMS Garage .......................................................................................................43
3.15
ROV Control Station .........................................................................................................................................44
3.16
Example ROV Pilot Console Display ...............................................................................................................44
3.17
Example ROV Pilot Console Display ...............................................................................................................44
3.18
Moonpool Launch and Recovery System .........................................................................................................45
3.19
Umbilical Winch ...............................................................................................................................................45
3.20
ROV Umbilical — Armoured Exterior ............................................................................................................45
3.21
Overside ROV Launch and Recovery System ...................................................................................................46
3.22
Overside ROV Launch and Recovery System ...................................................................................................46
3.23
Overside A-Frame Launch and Recovery System .............................................................................................46
OFFSHORE SUPPORT VESSELS ix
Figure page
4.1
Boom Type Crane with Lattice Arrangement ...................................................................................................47
4.2
LatticeType Boom Crane with Luffing Wires .................................................................................................48
4.3
LatticeType Boom Crane with Luffing Wires .................................................................................................48
4.4
Crane Capacity Curves in Tabular Format ......................................................................................................49
4.5
Crane Capacity Curves in Graphical Format ....................................................................................................50
4.6
Lattice BoomType Crane ..................................................................................................................................51
4.7
Box Boom Type Crane with Luffing Cylinders ................................................................................................51
4.8
Knuckle Boom Crane .......................................................................................................................................51
4.9
Knuckle Boom Crane in Stowed Position .........................................................................................................52
4.10 Ballast transfer and stability management are essential components of crane vessel operations........................52
5.1
Skandi Navica — Pipe Lay Vessel ....................................................................................................................53
5.2
Reel Lay and Ramp Arrangement .....................................................................................................................55
5.3
Skandi Navica — Deck Reel and Stern Ramp Deployment Arrangement ........................................................56
5.4
Ramp Arrangement ...........................................................................................................................................56
5.5
Ramp Arrangement ...........................................................................................................................................56
5.6
Deck Mounted Reel — External .......................................................................................................................57
5.7 Deck Mounted Reel — Internal................................................................................................................... 57
5.8
Deck Mounted Reel Capacities ........................................................................................................................57
5.9
Deck Mounted Reel —Tie-in Arrangement .....................................................................................................57
5.10
Ramp Arrangement ..........................................................................................................................................57
5.11
Main and Piggy Back Aligners ..........................................................................................................................58
5.12
Main Aligner Track ..........................................................................................................................................58
5.13
Piggy Back Straightener ....................................................................................................................................58
5.14
TrackedTensioner Arrangement ........................................................................................................................59
5.15
Pipe Clamp Arrangement ..................................................................................................................................59
5.16
Exit Monitoring Frame ......................................................................................................................................59
5.17
Exit Roller Box ..................................................................................................................................................60
5.18
Abandonment and Recovery Sheave at the Base of the Tensioners ..................................................................60
5.19
PLET Handling Frame for Deployment of an End Termination .......................................................................60
5.20
Toisa Perseus — Vertical Lay Tower and Under Deck Carousels ....................................................................60
5.21
Under Deck Reel Capacities ..............................................................................................................................61
5.22
Under Deck Carousel Spooler and Carousel .....................................................................................................61
5.23 Loacung Prociuct onto Under Deck Carousel ...................................................................................................
5.24
Deck Mounted Carousel ....................................................................................................................................61
5.25
Minimum and Maximum Squeeze Pressure Arrangement on LoadingTower ..................................................61
5.26
LoadingTower and Deck Radius Controller .....................................................................................................62
5.27
Loading Tower Tensioner Track .......................................................................................................................62
5.28
Deck Radius Controller .....................................................................................................................................62
5.29
Deck Radius Controller .....................................................................................................................................62
5.30
Vertical Lay System Tower — Upper Chute ....................................................................................................63
5.31
Track Tensioners ..............................................................................................................................................63
5.32
Vertical Lay System Tower with Track Tensioners ..........................................................................................63
5.33
Vertical Lay System Tower with Track Tensioners ..........................................................................................64
x THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE
Figure page
6.1
Preparation for Diving Operations ....................................................................................................................66
6.2
Diver's Excursion Umbilical .............................................................................................................................69
6.3
Diver at Work Subsea .......................................................................................................................................69
6.4
Diver exiting the Dive Bell ...............................................................................................................................70
7.1
Kommandor Subsea 2000— ROV Support Vessel ...........................................................................................73
7.2
ROV Launch and Recovery ..............................................................................................................................73
7.3
ROV Integrity Checks .....................................................................................................................................76
8.1
Offshore Crane Operations ...............................................................................................................................81
8.2
Wire Arrangement — Single Bend ...................................................................................................................85
8.3
Wire Arrangement — Double Bend .................................................................................................................85
8.4
Wire Arrangement — Continuous Bend ...........................................................................................................85
8.5
Wire Arrangement — Reverse Bend ................................................................................................................85
8.6
Knuckle Boom Crane — Sheave Arrangement ................................................................................................86
8.7
Incorrect Spooling can lead to Slack Turns ......................................................................................................87
9.1
Pipe Lay Operations — Stern Ramp Lay System .............................................................................................89
9.2
Seven Oceans — Pipe Lay Vessel ....................................................................................................................89
9.3
Pipe Lay Spooling Operations ..........................................................................................................................91
9.4
Pipe Lay Loading Operations — Securing the Pipe End .................................................................................92
9.5
Pipe Lay Loading Operations — Deck Mounted Reel ....................................................................................92
9.6
Pipe Lay Deployment Operations .....................................................................................................................93
9.7
Skandi Navica — Pipe Lay Vessel ...................................................................................................................94
10.1
Forces involved in Dynamic Positioning .........................................................................................................95
10.2
Typical Dynamic Positioning System ...............................................................................................................95
10.3
Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) ..............................................................................................96
10.4
Transponder Beacons ......................................................................................................................................97
10.5
Fanbeam Laser Unit System .............................................................................................................................97
10.6
Taut Wire Arrangement ....................................................................................................................................98
10.7
RadaScan Transponder .....................................................................................................................................99
10.8
RadaScan Sensor ..............................................................................................................................................99
10.9
RadaScan 170° Diagram ..................................................................................................................................99
10.10
RadaScan 360° Diagram ...................................................................................................................................99
10.11
DP Classification (DNV and NMD) ...............................................................................................................101
10.12
DP Classification (Lloyds Register) ..............................................................................................................101
10.13
DP Classification — Comparison Summary ..................................................................................................101
10.14
IMCA Recommended Experience Levels — Existing Vessels ......................................................................103
10.15
IMCA Recommended Experience Levels — New Vessels.............................................................................103
10.16
IMCA Organisation ........................................................................................................................................104
11.1 Example Safety and Environmental Policy ..................................................................................................... 109
OFFSHORE SUPPORT VESSELS xi
Figure page
11.2 Olympic Canyon — ROV Support Vessel ......................................................................................................111
12.1 Subsea Viking— Offshore Support Vessel ......................................................................................................115
13.1
Principles of Health and Safety ..................................................................................................................... 119
13.2
Human Factor Statistics .................................................................................................................................. 120
13.3
Shipboard Safety Organisation .......................................................................................................................128
13.4
Dive Support Vessel — Safety Inspection Areas ........................................................................................... 130
13.5
Skandi Navica — Pipe Lay Vessel .................................................................................................................131
13.6
Toisa Polaris — Dive Support Vessel ............................................................................................................ 133
13.7a Gangway Access .............................................................................................................................................133
13.7b Accommodation Ladder Access......................................................................................................................134
13.8
Pipe and Cable Bridges .................................................................................................................................134
13.9
Round Bar Rung Covers ................................................................................................................................134
13.10
KickerTreads on External Stairways .............................................................................................................. 135
13.11
IMCA Slips, Trips and Falls Poster ................................................................................................................135
13.12
Pilot Boarding Operations .............................................................................................................................136
13.13
Risk Analysis Matrix ......................................................................................................................................137
13.14
Mooring Ropes ...............................................................................................................................................140
13.15
Mooring Ropes ...............................................................................................................................................141
13.16
IMCA Manual Handling Poster ......................................................................................................................142
13.17
Toisa Perseus— Pipe Lay Vessel ...................................................................................................................143
14.1
Summary of Garbage Disposal ....................................................................................................................... 146
14.2
Controlled and Hazardous Waste ................................................................................................................... 148
15.1 Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens ...................................................................................................151

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