pakasi ® 15-Mar-2022 07:01

Electrical Engineering for Non-Electrical Engineers, 3rd Edition


Year: 2022
Language: english
Author: S. Bobby Rauf
Genre: Reference book
Publisher: River Publisher
Edition: 3rd Edition
ISBN: 8770223475
Format: PDF
Quality: eBook
Pages count: 557
Description: Engineers and non-engineers often eschew electrical engineering because it is premised on concepts and mathematical techniques that are somewhat more abstract and elusive than those employed in disciplines like civil, mechanical, and industrial engineering. Yet, because of the ubiquitous nature of electrical and electronic equipment and devices, and the indispensable role electricity plays in various facets of lives, a basic understanding of electrical engineering is essential. Engineers and non-engineers find themselves interfacing with electrical apparatus and dealing with matters that permeate into the electrical realm. Therein lies the purpose and objective of this book. This edition includes numerous updated pictures, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and improved explanation of certain concepts.

Contents

Chapter 1
Electrical Engineering Basics and Direct Current 1
Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Resistors in series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Resistors in Parallel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Electrical Short and Open Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Capacitor and Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Capacitors in Series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Capacitors in Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Capacitive Reactance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Inductor and Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Series Inductor Combination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Parallel Combination of Inductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Inductive Reactance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Magnetic Circuits Versus Electrical Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Basic Electrical Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Chapter 2
DC Circuit Analysis and Basic Electronic Devices 51
Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Voltage Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Current Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Multi-loop Circuit Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Diodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Half Wave Rectifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Full Wave Rectifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Transistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Electronic Device Applications on Printed Circuit Boards. . . . . . . 81viii
Chapter 3
Alternating Current (AC) Fundamentals 89
Alternating Current (AC) Versus Direct Current (DC) . . . . . . . . . 89
Electrodeposition — DC and the Average Value of AC . . . . . . . . 92
Alternating Current and Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Polar or Phasor Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Rectangular Form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Sinusoidal or Trigonometric Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Exponential Form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Impedance Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Common Single-phase AC Transformer Applications . . . . . . . . .113
Autotransformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
Voltage Regulation, Voltage Regulators, and
Buck−Boost Transformers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Three-phase AC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
Three-Phase AC Systems Versus Single-Phase AC Systems . . . . . .120
Current Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
Three-Phase AC Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Chapter 4
DC and AC Power 137
Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Single-Phase AC Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
Three-Phase AC Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152
Power Conversion from Steam to Electrical Form . . . . . . . . . . .153
Power Conversion from Water to Electrical Form . . . . . . . . . . .155
Power Conversion in Hydraulic Pump Systems —
Wire to Water Transformation of Power and Energy . . . . . . .157
Chapter 5
Power Factor 167
Power Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
Lagging Power Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
Lagging Power Factor from Impedance Perspective . . . . . . . . . .170
Leading Power Factor and Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
Power Factor Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182ix
Chapter 6
Demand, Load Factor, Service Factor, and
Electrical Power Bill Computation 195
Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
Peak Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
Load Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
Service Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200
Computation of Large Industrial or
Commercial Electrical Power Bills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201
Chapter 7
Electric Motors and Generators 209
DC Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209
AC Alternator 214
AC Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
Motor Torque and Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
Single-Phase and Three-Phase Motor Line
Current Computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
Three-Phase AC Induction Motor Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226
Motor Starting Methods for Induction Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
Motor Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
Typical Motor Nameplate Information for a
Large Three-phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
Chapter 8
Power Distribution Equipment, Instrumentation,
and Electronic Safety Devices 235
Voltage Categories in Power Distribution Systems. . . . . . . . . . .235
MCCs or Motor Control Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239
Motor Starter — A-B Bulletin 2100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247
Variable Frequency Drives — Up to 250 HP: . . . . . . . . . . . . .250
Smart Motor Controllers (SMCs) — Up to 500 A . . . . . . . . . . .251
Comparison between SMCs, VFDs, and Soft Starts . . . . . . . . . .253
PLC and I/O Chassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253
Main Switch Yard and Medium-Voltage Switchgear . . . . . . . . . .257
Medium-Voltage Switchgear — Loop Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
Circuit Breakers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259x
Medium-voltage Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260
High-voltage Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261
Chapter 9
National Electric Code, NFPA® 70 E and Electrical Standards 265
Ampacity of Conductors —Table 310.15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
Electrical Safety Certifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
NEMA Versus IP Enclosure Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289
Common Electrical/Electronic Safety Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . .292
Chapter 10
Electrical Drawings and PLC Relay Ladder Logic Program 307
Electrical Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
One-line Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308
Current Carrying Conductor Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
Conduit and Conduit Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316
Overload Protection Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318
Starter Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318
Overcurrent Protection Fuse Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319
Fusible Disconnect Switch Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319
Wiring Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324
Input Control Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
Output Control Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
Relay Ladder Logic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .332
Chapter 11
Electrical Power Rate Schedules and Electrical Energy
Cost Savings Opportunities 341
Four-Pronged Approach to
Electrical Energy Cost Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
Electric Utility Rate Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
Rates Under OPT-I Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
Hourly Pricing Option/Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348
Areas of Opportunity for Electrical Energy Cost Savings . . . . . . .348
Energy Performance Contracting and ESCO Opportunities . . . . . .351
Electrical Energy Related Measures
Typically Included in ESCO or EPC Endeavors . . . . . . . . .354xi
Chapter 12
Illumination and Lighting System Design 363
Lighting Terms, Concepts, and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .364
Luminous Efficacy or Luminous Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . .368
IESNA Recommended Illumination Levels and
Lighting Efficacy Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .371
Lambert’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .375
Illuminance Inverse Square Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377
Illuminance Cosine-cubed Law: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .378
Lighting Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381
Daylight-Based Design Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381
Chapter 13
Batteries 387
Battery Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389
Primary Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389
Secondary Batteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390
Li-Ion Battery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
Lead-acid or SLI Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
Comparison of Electrical Energy and Charge Storage Systems . . . 402
Cost Comparison of Major Secondary Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . .407
Discharging Characteristics of Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .408
Charging of Secondary Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419
Appendices
Appendix A 427
Chapter 1: Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
Chapter 2: Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436
Chapter 3: Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .446
Chapter 4: Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457
Chapter 5: Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465
Chapter 6: Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .472
Chapter 7: Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .476
Chapter 8: Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .483
Chapter 9: Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .484
Chapter 10: Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .491
Chapter 11: Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .498
Chapter 12: Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .501xii
Chapter 13: Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505
Appendix B 508
Common Units and Unit Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . .508
Appendix C 512
Greek Symbols Commonly Used in Electrical Engineering . . . . . .512
Index 513
Biography 537

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