zxc ® 17-Окт-2012 13:35

Руководство по оценке судоремонтных работ / Guide to ship repair estimates (IN MAN-HOURS)


Year: 2000
Language: english
Author: Don Butler
Genre: GUIDE
Publisher: OXFORD AUCKLAND BOSTON JOHANNESBURG MELBOURNE NEW DELHI
ISBN: 0 7506 4834 1
Format: PDF
Quality: OCR without errors
Number of pages: 105
Description: This guide has been produced in order to outline to technical superintendents of ship owners and ship managers the manner in which the commercial departments of ship repairers compile quotations. The ship repairers use their tariffs for standard jobs to build up their quotations. This guide is based on these tariffs, but is made up in manhours to assist long-term pricing. It can also be of assistance to shipyards without this information to prepare man-hour planning charts, helping them to assess manpower requirements for jobs and to produce time-based plans. Man-hours have been used so that this book will not be ‘dated’ and can be used without encountering the problems of increases in costs over the years. Where man-hour costs are not possible, these have been noted and suggestions made to compile costs against these items.
Apart from steel works and pipe works, no cost of materials has been included within this book. Only man-hours are used in order that the compiler may assess shipyards’ charges based on the current market price of labour.
Where materials are conventionally supplied by the repair contractor, these have been built into the labour costs and evaluated as man-hours. Apart from steel works and pipe works, the cost of materials in the jobs listed are generally minimal when compared with labour costs. So, apart from these two, most of the other costs will be consumables.
A comparison between various countries has been included. The workers of some countries have more efficient skills than others. Some establishments have more sophisticated equipment than others.
Introduction
However, common ground has been assumed in the output of workers in standard jobs.
It is stressed that this book considers only ship ‘repairs’, that is, removing damaged, worn, or corroded items, making or supplying new parts to the pattern of the old and installing. It is not meant to be used in its entirety for new building work, although, in some areas, it may prove useful.
Unless specifically mentioned, all the repairs are in situ. For removing a specific item ashore to the workshops, consideration should be given to any removals necessary to facilitate transportation through the ship and to the shore workshop and the later refitting of these removals, and an appropriate charge made.
In calculating the labour man-hours, it should be borne in mind that these will vary for similar jobs carried out under different conditions, such as world location, working conditions, environment, type of labour, availability of back-up labour, etc.
The labour times given in this book are based upon the use of trained and skilled personnel, working in reasonable conditions in an environment of a good-quality ship repair yard with all necessary tools, equipment and readily available materials and consumables. All these factors should be considered when calculating the man-hours and if conditions vary from that of the assumption of this book then factors should be applied to compensate for any shortfall in any conditions. As an example, if the work is being carried out in a country which suffers from heat and high humidity, then the output of a worker can fall to 50% that of the same worker in another country which has an easier working climate.
With reduced work outputs for whatever reason, a ship repair yard will need to mark up their pricing rates according to their type of variance, and this is passed on to the ship owner. The estimator should consider influences applicable and may need to apply a factor to increase the man-hours according to whatever may reduce the output of a contractor’s workers.
Once the man-hours have been calculated, the estimator must then apply a pricing rate to the total. These vary from place to place and should be ascertained from the ship repair establishments under consideration. The variance of the rates will be applicable to certain considerations which can be applied. These considerations can include the local economy, how hungry the yard is for work, the 2 Guide to Ship Repair Estimates (in Man-hours) current workload of the yard and other similar situations. The estimator can look at the economic climate of the repair yards and ascertain a variance factor for each yard and apply these accordingly. The figures shown in this book are not to be viewed as invariable. Obviously different shipyards have different working conditions and techniques, so the man-hours for the work can vary. However, the figures shown can be used as a fair assessment of the work in general and can produce price estimates for budget purposes to a shipowner. This is the object of the book.
When requesting quotations from shipyards the quotes received always vary considerably. The figures given in this book reflect competitive tariff rates.
The author has long-term experience in the ship repair world and he is currently a director of a marine consultancy. He is a former sea-going engineer, qualified and experienced in steam and motor ships, even with experience of steam reciprocating engines and saturated steam fire tube boilers, rising from there to repair superintendent. He has extensive ship repair yard experience gained from production, commercial and general managerial positions.
Seeing a lack of this type of publication, the author decided to put his long-term experience to use in order to assist those responsible for compiling repair specifications with a pricing strategy so they may build up costings for their planned repair periods. Included in the text are a number of tips to be applied in the preparation of repair specifications and finalizing contracts with ship repair yards.

List of tables

1 Introduction 1
2 Drydocking works 5
Berth preparation 5
Docking and undocking 6
Dock rent per day 6
Hull preparation 8
Hull painting 10
Rudder works 13
Propeller works 14
Tailshaft works 17
Anodes 20
Sea chests 22
Docking plugs 22
Valves 23
Fenders 25
Anchors and cables 26
Chain lockers 27
Staging 28
3 Steel works 29
4 Pipe works 35
Contents v
5 Mechanical works 41
Overhauling diesel engines (single-acting, slow-running,
two-stroke, cross-head) 42
Overhauling diesel engines (single-acting, slow-running,
in-line, four-stroke, trunk) 47
Valves 52
Condensers 55
Heat exchangers 56
Turbines 57
Compressors 60
Receivers 61
Pumps 62
Boilers (main and auxiliary) 67
6 Electrical works 69
7 General works 83
8 Planning charts 85
Sample graph loadings for major trades in ship repairing 89
Index 93

Contents

Figures
1 A vessel sitting on keel blocks undergoing repairs in
dry dock 6
2 A small grab dredger in a graving dock 8
3 Hull preparation by water blasting and hull painting by
airless spray 10
4 The rudder and propeller of a small vessel in dry dock 15
5 A propeller undergoing tests 16
6 Repair of damage to shell plating 31
7 Main engine cooling-water pipes 37
8 A main propulsion diesel engine 42
9 A ship’s medium-speed main engine 47
10 A ballast system valve chest 53
11 A standard screw-lift globe valve 54
12 A vertical electric-driven centrifugal water pump 63
13 A main electrical switchboard in a machinery control room 69
14 A generator control panel in a main switchboard 70
15 A standard AC induction electrical motor 72
16 A ship’s main diesel-driven AC alternator 74
17 Grouping of electric cables on a cable tray 78
18 Control panels of a ship’s auxiliary equipment 81
Figures vii

Tables

2.1 Shifting of blocks after docking vessel 5
2.2 Dock services 7
2.3 Removal of rudder and stock for survey 13
2.4 Propeller works (fixed pitch) – 1 13
2.5 Propeller works (fixed pitch) – 2 15
2.6 Propeller polishing in situ (fixed pitch) 16
2.7 Tailshaft/sterntube clearances 17
2.8 Removal of tailshaft for survey 18
2.9 Gland and Simplex-type seal 19
2.10 Anodes on hull and in sea chests 20
2.11 Sea chests and strainers 21
2.12 Sea valves 23
2.13 Ship side storm valves 24
2.14 Hollow fenders in half schedule 80 steel pipe 25
2.15 Anchor cables (per side) 26
2.16 Chain lockers (per side) 27
2.17 Erection of tubular steel scaffolding 28
3.1 Steel works renewals 32
4.1 Pipe work renewals in schedule 40 and schedule 80
seamless steel 35
4.2 Pipe clamps 38
4.3 Spool pieces 39
5.1 Top overhaul 43
5.2 Cylinder liners – 1 44
5.3 Bearing survey – 1 45
5.4 Crankshaft deflections – 1 45
Tables ix
5.5 Four-stroke trunk-type main engines 48
5.6 Cylinder liners – 2 49
5.7 Bearing survey – 2 50
5.8 Crankshaft deflections – 2 51
5.9 Overhauling valves 52
5.10 Main condenser 55
5.11 Overhauling heat exchanger 56
5.12 Main steam turbines 57
5.13 Flexible coupling 57
5.14 Auxiliary steam turbines 58
5.15 Water-tube boiler feed pumps (multi-stage type) 59
5.16 Oil tanker cargo pumps 60
5.17 Air compressor (two-stage type) 60
5.18 Air receivers 61
5.19 Horizontal centrifugal-type pumps 62
5.20 Reciprocating-type pumps, steam driven 64
5.21 Reciprocating-type pumps, electric motor driven 64
5.22 Gear-type pumps (helical and tooth) 65
5.23 Stearing gear 66
5.24 Cleaning of water-tube boilers 67
6.1 Insulation resistance test 69
6.2 Switchboard 70
6.3 Electric motors 71
6.4 Electric motors for winch/windlass/crane 72
6.5 Electric generators 73
6.6 Installations of unarmoured, flexible, multi-core,
rubber-insulated cable 75
6.7 Installations of rubber-insulated, armoured flexible cable 77
6.8 Installations of rubber-insulated, armoured flexible
single-core cable 79
6.9 Installations of electric cable tray 80
6.10 Installations of electric cable conduit 82
7.1 General cleaning 83
7.2 Tank cleaning 84
7.3 Tank testing 84
x Tables
1 Introduction

Index

Air compressors, 60, 61
Air receivers, 61
Anchors and cables, 26
Auxiliary boiler, 67
Auxiliary steam turbines, 58
Ballast water tank cleaning, 84
Bearing survey, 45, 50
Berth preparation, 5
Bilge area hand cleaning, 84
Bilge water or slops handling,83
Boilers, 67
Cables, anchors, 26
Cargo pump turbine, 58
Cargo pumps, 60
Chain lockers, 27
Compressors, air, 60, 61
Condenser, 54
Crankcase doors, 45, 46, 51
Crankshaft deflections, 45, 46,51
Cylinder head, 43, 48
Cylinder liners, 44, 49
Diesel engines, 42, 47
Dock rent per day, 6
Dock services, 7
Docking and undocking, 6
Docking blocks, shifting, 5
Docking plugs, 22
Drydocking works, 5–28
Duplex pump, 64
Electric cable conduit, 82
Electric cable tray, 80
Electric cable, armoured, multicore,77, 78
Electric cable, single core, 79
Electric cable, un-armoured,
multi-core, 75, 76
Electric cables, 75–79
Electric generators, 73
Electric motors, 71
Electric motors, crane, 72, 73
Electric motors, winch, 72, 73
Electric motors, windlass, 72,73
Electrical insulation resistance tests, 69
Electrical switchboard, 70
Electrical works, 69–82
Feed pump turbine, 59
Feed pumps, 59
Flexible coupling, 57
Four stroke auxiliary diesel engines, 47
Four stroke main propulsion
diesel engines, 47
Fresh water tank cleaning, 84
Fuel oil tank cleaning, 84
Gear pump, 65
General works, 83–84
Gudgeon pin, 48
Heat exchanger, 55
Hollow fenders in half pipe, 25
Hull painting area formula, 12
Hull painting of names,
homeport, load lines, draft
marks, 10
Hull painting special notes, 11
Hull painting, 10
Hull preparation by degreasing,8
Hull preparation by disc preparation, 8
Hull preparation by dry blast, 8
Hull preparation by grit blast, 8
Hull preparation by grit sweep,8
Hull preparation by hand scraping, 8
Hull preparation by high pressure jetwash, 8
Hull preparation by hose down with fresh water, 8
Hull preparation by spot blast, 8
Hull preparation by vacuum dry blast, 8
Hull preparation by water blast, 8
Hull preparation special notes, 9
Hull preparation, 8
Hull steel repairs, 29
Internal steel hand scraping, 84
Main condenser, 54
Main steam turbines, 57
Mechanical works, 41–67
Megger tests, electrical
insulation resistance, 69
Oil tanker cargo pump, 60
Pipe clamps, 38
Pipe spool pieces, 39
Pipe work renewals in copper,37
Pipe work renewals in schedule 40 steel, 35–36
Pipe work renewals in schedule 80 steel, 35–36
Pipe work, hot dip galvanising
after manufacture, 36
Pipeworks, 35–39
Planning works, 85–92
Propeller cleaning, in-situ, 16
Propeller removal, 14
Propeller repairs and balance
checking, 14,15
Propeller works, 14
Pumps, 62
Reciprocating pump, motor
driven, 64, 65
Reciprocating pump, steam
driven, 64,
Rudder clearances, 13
Rudder gland packing, 13
Rudder removal, 13
Rudder works, 13
Sea chests, 22
Sea grids, 22
Sea valves, 23
Simplex pump, 64
Sludge handling, 83
Staging, 28
Steam turbines, 58
Steel weight calculation method,30–31
Steel repairs, 29
Steel works, special notes, 33
Steelworks, 29–33
Steering gear, 66
Stern gland patent seals, 19
Stern gland repacking, 19
Storm valves, 24
Tailshaft clearances, in-situ, 17
Tailshaft crack detection by
Magnaflux test, 19
Tailshaft patent seals, 19
Tailshaft removal externally, 18
Tailshaft removal internally, 18
Tailshaft works, 17–19
Tank cleaning, 84
Tank manhole cover removal, 84
Tank testing by filling with sea
water, 84
Tank testing by low pressure
compressed air, 84
Top overhaul, diesel engine, 43,48
Turbines, steam, 58
Turbo alternator, 58
Two stroke main propulsion
diesel engines, 42
Valve, high pressure, 52
Valve, pipeline, 52
Valve, sea, 23
Water-tube boiler, 67
Zinc anode quantity calculation,
20–21
Zinc anodes, 20
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