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Ship to Ship Transfers – Considerations Applicable to Reverse Lightering Operations


Year: 2009
Language: english
Author: OCIMF
Genre: Guide
Format: PDF
Quality: eBook
Pages count: 7
Description: ‘Reverse Lightering’, sometimes referred to as ‘topping-off’, is a
ship to ship transfer operation in which a laden tanker, typically of Suezmax or Aframax size, is
manoeuvred alongside a partially laden VLCC or ULCC in order to transfer cargo to the larger vessel. This
differentiates the operation from conventional STS activities in which the manoeuvring vessel is typically
in a ballast condition. With two nearly fully loaded vessels manoeuvring alongside under way, the issue of
fender selection is critical and this paper aims to expand and build on the existing guidance by further
discussing the factors to be taken into account regarding aspects that include berthing energy
absorption requirements and recommended stand-off distances.

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