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REEDS Maritime Meteorology


Year: 2009
Language: english
Author: M. M. Cornish, E. E. Ives
Genre: Handbook
Publisher: Adlard Coles Nautical
Edition: 3
ISBN: ISBN 978-1-4081-2552-6
Format: PDF
Quality: eBook
Pages count: 266
Description: In keeping with the original aim, this edition has been written primarily for serving and trainee deck officers on merchant ships and for fishermen. It is
hoped that it will also be of value to yachtsmen and women and to all who have an interest in the sea and meteorology.
We have avoided what appeared to us unnecessary in-depth theory, but at the same time have given as complete an explanation of various points as we
considered appropriate. The book is principally designed as a suitable textbook for those studying for certificates of competency. As far as possible it anticipates changes in examination structures leading to Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) qualifications in the UK, and since similar changes are also taking place internationally, it should also appeal to other English-speaking readers.
We have taken into account the vast range of information available through the Internet and included website addresses which we considered most appropriate for further reading at the end of some chapters. The choice of websites was difficult as there are many hundreds.
A helpful Glossary is included and questions at the end of each chapter are designed to help the student to test his or her knowledge and understanding.
Note: We have used the hectopascal (hPa) as the unit of pressure, both in the text and marked on diagrams showing isobars. It has exactly the same
numerical value as a millibar but is the preferred equivalent SI unit. Until now the millibar has been used in the majority of meteorological publications and is still used in weather forecasts for the general public. However, hectopascals are used by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and are being steadily introduced and used in the same manner that Celsius has now almost totally replaced Fahrenheit as the unit of temperature measurement.

Contents

Preface viii
Acknowledgements ix
About the authors ix
1 The atmosphere 1
 Composition  Vertical distribution  Variation of temperature
and pressure with height
2 Solar radiation and temperature 5
 Radiation as a form of heat transfer  Diurnal temperature range
 Factors affecting the heating effect of solar radiation
3 Humidity and condensation 8
 Water vapour  Saturated and unsaturated air  Dew point 
Absolute and relative humidity  Hygroscopic nuclei
4 Classification of clouds 13
 Characteristics of cloud types  Associated height ranges  Descriptions
and illustrations (Photos 1 to 16)  Weather indicated by cloud types
5 Cloud formation and development 18
 Adiabatic heating and cooling  The physics of cloud formation 
Lapse rates  Stability and instability  Causes of initial uplift of air
6 Precipitation 29
 Rain and drizzle  Types of rain  Snow, sleet, hail, frost, sea spray,
dew and rime
7 Thunderstorms 34
 Causes  Lightning and thunder  Types of thunderstorm
CONTENTS
v8 Visibility 38
Definitions  Types of fog  Advection, frontal, radiation, Arctic sea
smoke  Mist, dust and haze  Sound signals  Use of radar
9 Atmospheric pressure and wind 43
Units of pressure  Cause of wind  Relationship between wind
direction and force and isobars  Buys Ballot’s Law  Distinction
between geostropic and gradient wind  Effect of heating upon
pressure  Planetary system of pressure and winds  Prevailing
winds of the oceans  Land and sea breezes  Local winds
10 Sea and swell waves 59
Definitions  Characteristics  Formation of waves  Relationship
between the period of a ship’s roll and the period of waves  Wave
dimensions  Shallow water effects  Importance of observing and
reporting wave data  The Beaufort scale  Illustrations
11 Air masses and associated weather 68
Sources and characteristics  Classifications  Polar and tropical air
masses and associated weather
12 Isobaric patterns 76
Distinctive types  General characteristics and weather associated with
depressions, anticyclones, secondary depressions, troughs, ridges of high
pressure, cols and straight isobars
13 Fronts and frontal depressions 84
Air mass boundaries  Main frontal zones  Frontal theory of formation
of depressions  The sequence of cloud and weather at fronts  The
process of occluding  The movement of depressions  Families of
depressions
14 Non-frontal depressions 101
Formation  Thermal, instability and orographic depressions
15 Anticyclones 105
Formation and properties  Types  Associated weather
16 Tropical revolving storms 109
Origins and life history  Tracks  Strengths of wind and sequence of
likely weather  Storm tides  Seasons  Regional names and details
17 Avoidance of the worst effects of a TRS 121
Natural warnings  Radar and radio warnings  Action required of masters
 Practical rules of avoidance in both northern and southern hemispheres
M A R I T I M E M E T E O R O L O G Y
vi18 Weather forecasting for the seafarer 132
The synoptic map  Storm warnings  Radio bulletins and forecasts
 Facsimile maps  International aspects  WMO  Selected Ship
Scheme  Weather satellites  Global warming
19 Forecasting the mariner’s own weather 140
Movements of fronts  Rules for estimating  Development of anticyclones
 Winds of the upper atmosphere  Upper air charts
20 Ocean surface currents 151
Causes  Characteristics  General surface circulation  Tabulated ocean
currents
21 Sea ice 159
Physics and formation  Development  Icebergs  Distribution and
seasons  Practical warnings  Dangers of icing on deck
22 Weather routeing 166
Climatological routeing  Synoptic routeing  Weather routeing
from shore specialists
23 Meteorological aspects of radar 173
Meteorological phenomena on radar  Wave clutter  Standard conditions
 Non-standard conditions
24 Meteorological factors of planning an ocean passage 177
General principles  Recommended references  Routeing charts
25 Brief notes on observations and instruments 181
Importance of being observant  Logbook entries  Aneroid barometers
 Barographs  Hygrometers  Sea thermometers  Wind and the
Beaufort scale  Clouds  Visibility  Ocean currents
A Meteorological Glossary 186
Appendix 1 Meteorology and care of cargo 216
Heavy weather  Ventilation  Hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic
cargoes  Cargo sweat  Ship sweat  Spontaneous combusion
 Meteorological factors affecting containers
Appendix 2 Units and equivalent values 222
Index 225
Chart of ocean currents Inside back cove

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