janataly ® 20-Jan-2014 23:47

The Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS)


Year: 2009
Language: english
Author: Adam Weintrit
Genre: Handbook
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0415482461
Format: PDF
Quality: Scanned pages
Number of pages: 1136
Description: Electronic navigation, although still relatively new, is becoming increasingly more common, particularly on commercial vessels. This handbook offers a wealth of detailed information about how different charting systems operate and answers the most commonly asked questions regarding electronic charts (ENC, RNC, DNC) and electronic chart systems (ECDIS, RCDS, ECS). The first resource to provide so much detail on all facets of ECDIS and Electronic Charting Systems, it is certain to serve as the bible for ECDIS users for years to come. It not only provides information for training programs but also for engineers maintaining ECDIS Systems in the field.
The book will be of specific interest to those who need to know about selection, implementation, operational use, benefits, and management of these systems, without getting into the technical details of how ECDIS/GIS actually works.

Contents

IMO decision xix
Preface xxi
Acronyms and Abbreviations used in the ECDIS Handbook xxiii
Author’s Biography xxxi
Introduction 1
IAMU model course on the operational use of ECDIS 1
Relevance to the work of IAMU • Methodology – including breakdown
to smaller manageable tasks
ECDIS Training 2
Officers of the watch requirements • STCW’95 convention
Course outline 3
List of principal ECDIS subjects (Training Areas) • Course description • Course outline
• Entry standards • Course objectives • Course contents
1. Legal Aspects, Requirements and International Standards 11
Development of ECDIS • What is ECDIS? • Legal aspects of using electronic
navigational charts
1.1. Introduction. GIS and ECDIS 14
Introduction • Geographical Information Systems • GIS – A generic definition
• Overview of GIS system applications • Marine GIS • Coastal GIS • GIS in exploration
and production • Application of ENCs as GIS • GIS and ECDIS • Benefits of ECDIS
• Conclusions • ECDIS – INS - IBS • Integrated Navigation Systems • Integrated Bridge
Systems • The application of SOLAS Chapter V/15 to INS, IBS
1.2. Carriage requirements 33
SOLAS background • ECDIS in SOLAS • Clear waters ahead for ECDIS • Hydrographic
data and charts • Consequences of new SOLAS V regulations • Proposed changes to
IMO Performance Standards on ECDIS • Conditions for possible introduction of ECDIS
carriage requirements • Proposal for modification of SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation
19 • Proposal for modification of HSC Code, Chapter 13 • Possible authorisation of
use of ECDIS in RCDS mode without a requirement to carry an appropriate portfolio
of paper charts • Indication of acceptance of RNCs by individual coastal states
based on the survey to be conducted by IHO as requested by NAV 50 • Definition
of, and/or criteria for, the term “appropriate portfolio of paper charts” when
ECDIS is used in the RCDS mode and as ECDIS back up • Instruments required to
monitor the promulgation of official digital charts and paper charts related to ECDIS
operation, and provide this information to interested parties • Consider possible
implications for IMO instruments and submit a report of its deliberations to NAV 51
• Mandatory ECDIS for high-speed craft • IHO online charts catalogue
1.3. Definitions of the main terms: ECDIS, ENC, SENC 44
The Importance of electronic charts • Electronic chart display and information
system (ECDIS) • Electronic navigational chart (ENC) • System electronic navigational
chart (SENC) • Standard display • Display base • All other information • Terminology
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related to ECDIS • Electronic charts • What are electronic charts systems? • ECDIS
• ECS
1.4. Equivalency of ECDIS and conventional paper chart 51
ENCs the only route to paperless navigation • ENC coverage • Requirements
• Navigate on ECDIS • National hydrographic offices (NHO) and the nautical chart
• Legal issues: ECDIS & the user • Conclusion
1.5. Performance standards for ECDIS IMO Resolution A.817/19 56
ECDIS international standards description • Introduction • ECDIS performance
standards
1.6. Data procurement according to IHO standards and requirements 60
IHO S-57 – Data transfer • IHO S-52 – Colours, Symbols, Display Aspects • IHO
Committee on Hydrographic Requirements for Information Systems (CHRIS) • CHRIS
terms of reference • Rules of procedure
1.7. Technical standards and requirements (IEC, ISO) 62
IEC 61174 • Scope • Conclusion
1.8. Training requirements 65
Training and assessment in operational use of ECDIS • GENERAL: The aim of the
course • Real-time training • Theory and demonstration • Simulator exercises
• Principal types of ECDIS systems and their display characteristics • Risks of overreliance
on ECDIS • Detection of misrepresentation of information • Factors affecting
system performance and accuracy • PRACTICE: Setting up and maintaining display
• Operational use of electronic charts • Route planning • Route monitoring • Alarm
handling • Manual correction of a ship’s position and motion parameters • Records in
the ship’s log • Chart updating • Operational use of ECDIS with radar/ARPA connected
• Operational use of ECDIS where AIS connected • Operational warnings, their
benefits and limitations • System operational tests • Debriefing exercise • Training
and simulation
2. Principal Types of ECS and Electronic Charts 77
Cartographic design of the electronic chart • Introduction to electronic chart systems
and ECDIS • How do they work? • Electronic charts • Raster chart performance
standards • ECS/ECDIS/RCDS
2.1. Characteristics of electronic chart systems and their different solutions 80
Electronic charts • Electronic chart system • Components of ECS and ECDIS
• Electronic chart systems. What are they and what do they do? • How should the
mariner use the electronic charts? • Which type of electronic chart is the best for the
navigators? • Electronic charts as an aid to navigation
2.2. Differences between ECDIS and ECS 84
Differences between ECDIS and ECS • Abstract • What is the navigator looking for?
• Terminology etc • ECS in use – Raster systems • ECS in use – Vector systems
2.3. Differences between vector and raster charts 89
What are electronic charts? • Vector chart system • Raster chart system • Official
vector data • Vector data formats other than IHO S-57 • Raster data • The necessity
for the “dual fuel” system • A BSB story • The two types of electronic charts –
Raster and Vector
2.4. Differences between ENC and RNC 108
Electronic Navigational Charts (ENCs) • ENC production status • The Admiralty ENC
Service • ENC distribution • Raster Navigational Charts (RNCs) • RNC distribution
• How to use the electronic charts? • What are the regulations? • The IMO
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requirements when using a type-approved ECDIS • Which type of electronic chart
is best for navigator? • So what does this mean in practical terms? • The future of
primary navigation • ARCS and ENC • ENC and RNC availability in Australia
2.5. Admiralty Raster Chart Service (ARCS) 112
About admiralty charts • ARCS data • ARCS chart service levels • Electronic chart
system compatibility • Chart catalogue • A user’s unique licence • Data updating
system • Proven benefits • ARCS and SOLAS convention • ARCS for GIS in action
• ARCS compatible display systems
2.6. Differences between RCDS and ECDIS 126
Raster Chart Display System (RCDS) • ECDIS versus RCDS • Dual fuelling and RCDS
accepted by IMO
2.7. ENC versus privately manufactured data 133
Electronic Navigational Chart • ENC or privately manufactured data? • Services
available to Hydrographic Offices from the Electronic Chart Centre • Key features
• ENC or privately manufactured data • One or the other or both? • Sources of data
• Electronic charts coverage • Quality of data • Assessment standard • IS0 19379-
2003 • Use of the standard • Contents of the standard • Present status and the
future of privately manufactured data • Filling the gap? • Instead of ENC? • ENC
and the private data manufacturer • Replacing paper charts • One or the other or
both…? • The solution: public and private sectors join together • Collaborations
proven successful
2.7.1. C-Map vector charts in format CM-93 141
C-Map electronic charts obtain ISO certification • What is C-Map NT?
• Advantages with C-Map vector charts • CM-93 format • Reasons for
compression of official electronic charts in S-57 to CM-93/3 • CM-93/3 is
designed for automatic updating • CM-93/3 is projection-free • CM-93/3
supports all languages and alphabets • CM-93/3 is compatible with all
hardware platforms and operating systems • CM-93/3 is not limited to S-57
• Global chart database • SENC distribution
2.7.2. Transas vector charts in format TX-97 147
‘Interim charts’ • Transas World Collection • Chart production • TX-97
customers • Updates and innovation • Transas Chart Catalogue • Transas
group
2.8. Characteristics of ECS/ECDIS systems for special purposes 153
2.8.1. Military ECDIS 153
ECDIS for naval applications • ECDIS-ECS: Real-time Marine GIS • ECDIS-N
• Warship ECDIS (WECDIS) • WECDIS and ECDIS-N • Additional military
layers • AML layer themes • Six AML products
2.8.2. The Digital Nautical Chart 160
Navigation Sensor System Interface (NAVSSI) • The Digital Nautical Chart
• What is the difference between DNC and ENC? • Rapid Digital Nautical
Charting for military navigation • ECPINS DNC
2.8.3. Electronic charts for VTS purposes 168
VTS, AIS, ECDIS – A natural synergy • Three levels • Interrelationships
• ECDIS/vector chart based traffic image (new function) • Work of VTS,
Pilot’s input and the need for cooperation • Conclusions
2.8.4. Ports and Waterways Safety System (PAWSS) 174
System description
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2.8.5. Inland ECDIS 176
Electronic Chart Display and Information System for inland navigation
• Primary functions and performance of I-ECDIS • I-ECDIS related
definitions
2.9. The failure of ECDIS versus the apparent success of ECS 183
RTCM ECS Standards • Electronic charts • ECDIS course • Confusion over charts
• Non-official charts • Licensing • A chart distributor perspective • The failure of
ECDIS versus the apparent success of ECS • Lack of co-operation between HOs
• Lack of coverage in S-57 format • What of SOLAS and national obligations?
• Data from private data providers • Analogy with official paper charts • What about
the ship-owners?
3. ECDIS Data 191
IMO requirement for ECDIS • ECDIS data • Associated IHO and IEC standards
3.1. Terms and definitions used in the context of ECDIS 194
Electronic chart data • SENC Delivery • ENCs the only route to paperless navigation
• Requirements • Navigate on ECDIS • S-57 Edition 3.1 format • SENC • ENC
coverage increasing • Appendix 6
3.2. Data structure and data base 198
3.2.1. Data contents 198
Introduction • Specification for chart content and display of ECDIS (IHO
S-52) • S-57 in detail • Theoretical data model • Data structure • Records
• ENC product specification • Chain-node topology • Cartographic objects
• Prohibited catalogue object and attribute classes
3.2.2. Catalogue of objects and attributes 200
ENC objects and their attributes • Spatial and meta object attributes
3.2.3. Data exchange standard S-57 204
Introduction • Background • Current limitations of S-57 Edition 3.1 • Goal,
objectives and benefits • S-57 Edition 3.1 → 4.0 (S-100) • Implications for
ENC Product Specification • Summary
3.2.4. Portraying spatial and attribute data 207
Spatial data • Attribute data • Portraying spatial and attribute data
3.3. ENC creation 208
ENC production • IHO S-57 Transfer Standard for Digital Hydrographic Data • Product
Specification of S-57 • Updating ENC data set • Cartographic framework • Units
• Legend • Object-Orientation and object data model • Methods and behaviours
• Display methods and active representation • Validation methods for data integrity
• Object versioning and long transactions • Topology and structure • ENC production
flowline • ENC distribution
3.4. Reference systems 225
3.4.1. World geodetic system 1984 (WGS-84) 225
Background of geocentric coordinate systems • WGS-84 relationships with
other geodetic systems • Summary
3.4.2. Effects of using different reference 227
World geodetic system 1984 (WGS-84) • Why the need for a common
reference system? • Geodetic datum transformation • European
programme for the implementation of a common geodetic reference
frame • Relationship of WGS-84 to the ITRF and ETRF reference frames
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• ETRS 89 • EUROCONTROL standard ‘surveying of navigation facilities’
• Quality assurance
3.4.3. Effects of using different horizontal and vertical datum 228
Horizontal datum • Vertical datum • Horizontal datums on charts and
their electronic equivalents • What is a horizontal datum? • What is the
status of horizontal datums on australian charts? • System based datum
conversions • Horizontal control of spatial data
3.5. Data quality 235
ENC data quality, accuracy, updatedness, completeness and liability • Accuracy
requirements • Official ENC data • Unofficial ENC data • Electronic chart accuracy
• Source data deficiencies • Chart compilation inaccuracies • Addressing the accuracy
problem • Quality assurance methods for utilising outside source hydrographic data
to update nautical charts • Conclusion
3.6. Handling of ECDIS data on board 241
Priority layers • Introduction. Gdynia Maritime University lab on ECDIS • Navi-Sailor
2400 of transas • Navi-Sailor 3000 of transas • Electronic charts of various formats
• Navi-Sailor 3000 – Information databases • Standard ECDIS functions • Optimised
user interface • Chart display modes • Information tools • Expert navigation
capabilities • dKart Navigator of Morintech
3.7. Organisation of chart data distribution 251
3.7.1. The Worldwide Electronic Navigational Chart Database (WEND) 251
The present state and the future aspects of WEND • The WEND system
• Implementation of the WEND system • Ownership and responsibility
• Cooperation and coordination • Languages • Standards and quality
management • Distribution • Updating • Reimbursement and financial
arrangements • Assistance and training • Guidelines for the establishment
of ENC production boundaries • WEND – World-wide Electronic Navigational
Charts Data Base
3.7.2. Primar – World’s first RENC 255
RENC (Regional ENC Co-ordinating Centre) • World’s first RENC in stavanger
(Norway) • Northern Europe RENC – A joint project (1995) • ENC – The basic
products • The ENC production • The establishment of RENCs • The situation
in 2001 • The RENC organisation • The tasks of a RENC • Range of ENC
services • Area of coverage • The Network system • Primar’s contribution
to standardisation • Acceptance of ECDIS
3.7.3. International Centre of Electronic Navigational Charts (IC-ENC) 260
The Admiralty ENC service • ENC cell numbering • ENC unit numbering
• Types of CD in the Admiralty ENC Service • Conclusion
3.7.4. Cooperation between IC-ENC and Primar-Stavanger 263
Renewed cooperation between IC-ENC and Primar-Stavanger –
14th October 2004 • Comprehensive guide IC-ENC and Primar on ENC
• What about the rest of the HOs? S-63
3.7.5. S-57 data production by SevenCs 275
To be your own RENC/ ENC data server • Technical capabilities of SevenCs
ENC Server Suite
4. Presentation of ECDIS Data 277
Display characteristics • Display requirements and basic information to be displayed
• Use and restrictions of data • Calculations
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4.1. System’s menu – Chart mode 282
Next generation of ECDIS • ECDIS Presentation Library • Navi-Sailor 2400 ECDIS
• Navi-Sailor 3000 ECDIS • User-adjustable interface
4.2. Presentation library (colours, marks, symbols and abbreviations) 289
Introduction • Status of the Presentation Library • S-57 and the Presentation
Model for ECDIS • Structure of the Presentation Model for ECDIS • Packaging of
the Presentation Library • The elements of the Presentation Library – An overview
• The colour coding scheme • The library of symbols, fill styles and line styles
• Symbology instructions • Conditional symbology procedures • The look-up tables
• Mariners’ ECDIS Chart 1 diagrams • Catalogue of mariners’ navigational object
classes • Description of the colour coding system • The colours and symbols
• The vector symbol description language • Size and orientation of a vector-symbol
• Usage of a complex line style • General colour assignment for ECDIS features
• Background area shades • Presentation of navigation-related information
4.3. Major rules of data presentation 300
ECDIS data presentation • ENC visualisation • Main rules of display of SENC
information • Real time data and ECDIS
4.4. Display categories of chart data 307
Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) • Display categories of
chart data • Standard Display versus Display Base
4.5. Safety values 314
Four new chart features • Safety contour • Safety depth • Isolated dangers • Ownship
safety contour • Contour intervals • Safety depth contour and raster chart
4.6. User’s data 321
Additional user defined information • Navigational elements and parameters • User
files • User chart creating procedure
4.7. Modification of presented chart 325
Introduction • Problem areas • Data versus information • Display options • Display
mode • ECDIS data display facilities • SCAMIN and soundings • Temporary versus
permanent • 24-hour colour scheme • Some guiding principles • Final thoughts
• Display characteristics • Units, data layers and calculations
4.8. Automatic presentation rules 336
SCAMIN – The tool to control online generalisation • What is the definition of
SCAMIN? • What are the effects of SCAMIN when compiling ENCs? • How are
SCAMIN and usages related to each other? • What is the relation of SCAMIN and
OVERSCALE? • Some rules how to apply SCAMIN • SCAMIN while zooming in
• SCAMIN while zooming out • A refined standard scale list • The relation of
compilation scale and navigational purpose • Handling of large datasets for ECDIS
• Summary
4.9. Modes of presentation 351
Modes of presentation • True and relative motion • Display orientation • Look ahead
• North-up orientation • North-up, Head-up, Course-up presentation • Display mode
and generation of the neighbouring area • Projection
4.10. Errors in displayed data 356
Visualisation • Digital chart accuracy • Source data deficiencies • ENC chart
creation • Chart compilation inaccuracies • ECS software • Data inconsistencies
across usage bands • Inconsistent depiction and misalignment of data at cell
boundaries • Inconsistent depiction of data within a cell • Holes in data coverage
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• Data gaps and overlaps • Accuracy of chartworks • Absolute accuracy with GPS
and DGPS • Chart accuracy • NOAA electronic charts • Summary
4.11. 3D visualisation 368
Presentation of digital hydrographic data • Discussion on digital hydrographic data
• Introduction to 3D stereoscopic display techniques • The current situation • The
vision • The future roll out • Adding oceanographic marine information objects to
the ECDIS
5. Main Functions of ECDIS 379
Main benefits of ECDIS • Functional capability versus functional status • ECDIS main
functions • Calculations • Usefulness of ECDIS to reduce navigational workload
5.1. Automatic functions 393
Navigational functions of the electronic charts • Generally, the functions of electronic
charts relate to • The main advantage of ECDIS • Basic functions of NS 2400
• Additional functions
5.2. Manual functions 400
Manual functions • Controls • VRM/EBL • Fixed-point bearing and ERBL • ENC Scale
• The MOB button • The FIX button • Selecting the Positioning System
5.3. Own chart entries (Mariner’s notes) 409
User charts • Mariners’ objects • Making manual updates • Creating user charts
• Editing user charts • The purpose of user objects
5.4. Presentation of navigational marks 412
The use of visual aids to navigation • ENC Data Model • Light sectors • Lights on
fixed and floating aids to navigation
5.5. Additional information 419
Additional information • Manufacturer’s information on the route monitoring display
• Non-HO (non-ENC) chart information • Limit on ENC coverage: non-HO data on
the display • ECDIS Chart 1 • Additional Information Display • Obtaining information
from an Electronic Chart
5.6. Vector types 423
Vector types • Chart orientation • Speed and log • Radar/ARPA vectors • Vectors
information
6. Special Functions for Route Planning 429
The passage plan • Constructing a voyage track • Following a voyage plan • Route
planning and route monitoring in ECDIS • The role of leglines and waypoints in route
planning
6.1. International requirements for route planning 435
Route planning • Production of official ENC data • International collaboration –
SHARED programme • International ECDIS Conference and Exhibition (IECE) • ECDIS
route planning argument • Understanding the process of navigation
6.2. Sea area selection 439
Sea area selection • Route planning • Ocean passage • Route planning in SOLAS
• Navi-Sailor information area • Scale of the chart • No-go area
6.3. Route planning information 445
Equipment inventory • Route planning information (where and how the mariner
can find it) • Obtaining information on ports • Obtaining information on tides
• Obtaining climatic data • Obtaining information on currents
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6.4. Route planning calculations 453
Route planning • Display Route Mode • Tabular form of route planning • Graphical
route planning • Route planning procedure • Passage plan • Great Circle Line
calculation
6.5. Calculating the voyage schedule 460
Schedule generation and editing • Creating a schedule of the vessel’s motion along
the route • Voyage calculation in ship-owner office • Route calculations • Current
route • Current Way point • ETA calculation in dKart Navigator
6.6. Construction of a route 466
Route generation • Route generation procedures • Graphic method • Construction
of a route • Waypoints and routes • Route planning mode • Planned route • New
route • Supplementary instructions & notes to the routes • Training • How ECDIS
handles the data?
6.7. Curved track planning 475
Curved track planning • Course alterations & wheel-over • Curved track • Route
elements • Radius of gyration • Current Way Point
6.8. Planning notes 479
Planning notes • Routes • Additional information • Berth-to-berth route planning
• Displaying Way Points’ coordinates during editing • The benefits and considerations
for the master • Anticipated problems
6.9. Safety values according to size and manoeuvring parameters of the vessel 483
Safety value • Obtaining data for steering to the next route segment
6.10. Planned route checking for navigational safety 487
Planned route checking facility • Creating a route plan with a check for the presence
of dangers to navigation
6.11. Alternative routes 490
Contingencies • Alternative routes • Several potential routes through the each sea area
6.12. Optimisation of route planning 498
Route optimisation • Weather routeing • Weather Routing, Inc. • Integration with SPOS
(weather and route planning tool) • Maritime Intelligent Systems WINGS-FOR-SHIPS
6.13. Modification of a pre-planned route 504
Modification of the plan • Editing a previously created route in Navi-Sailor
6.14. Ultimate route selection 508
Voyage Planning • Approval of VPs • Voyage execution • Back-up arrangements
6.15. Printout of final route plan 510
Printout of route plan • Tabular form of route planning • Presentation and sharing
of VPs
7. Route Monitoring and Special Functions 515
Monitoring the ship’s progress • Route monitoring • Permissible range for deviation
from route
7.1. Monitored area selection 519
Route monitoring requirements • Route monitoring functions • Monitored area
selection • Route monitoring functions
7.2. Required route 523
Voyage Monitoring mode
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7.3. Vector-time selection and setting 531
Bearing and planned speed for each leg • Time management • Setting the
parameters for monitoring safety at sea in NS • Settings for the NS operation in the
navigation mode
7.4. Check measurements and calculations 534
Sailing along the route • Route check and route correction • Loading of and
working with a route and Voyage Schedule in the Voyage Monitoring Mode • Trial
manoeuvre – obtaining data for steering to the next route segment
7.5. Look-ahead function 539
Look-ahead function • ECDIS Look-ahead • Ship’s real-time position • True motion
and own ship offset from the centre of the screen • Compilation scale • The effective
size of the screen
7.6. Navigation in open (deep sea), coastal and confined waters 544
Real-time ship and environmental data • Scalable ship symbol • Precision navigation
• Ship’s domain • Obtaining additional information during the Navi-Sailor 2400
operation in the voyage monitoring mode
7.7. Alarms and indications 553
Alarm settings for route check • Track control indications and alarms • Alarm
requirements • Setting the alarms in Voyage Monitoring Mode in NS 2400 • Auxiliary
NS facilities used in the Voyage Monitoring Mode • Alarm settings in sailing along
the route • Alarms in NS
7.8. Current and wind effects 559
Manoeuvring and handling a ship • Planned route and past track • External
sources – current and wind effects • NS purpose and capabilities • VOSS (Voyage
Optimisation and Safety System) • Obtaining information on weather parameters
• Wind interface
7.9. Practice with new techniques of presentation – windows statement 565
Windows boxes • Scroll windows • Dialogue windows • Functional window features
• Manipulative window features • Help box • Active and inactive windows • Advisory
windows • Check window
8. Data Updating System 573
Background – Copenhagen Declaration • Specific requirements of nautical chart
production • New challenges of nautical chart producers • Main benefit • ENC
correction systems • New ENC supply and distribution system • Recommendations
on ENC data encoding for improved ENC consistency • Commercial systems
• Terminology • Updating entities
8.1. Production and distribution of official digital updates 581
ENC production and distribution • NIMA DNC corrections – Digital Nautical Chart
Vector Database Updates • Updating the NOAA charts • NOAA corrections for
raster charts
8.1.1. The WEND/RENC concept of updating data distribution 586
ENC production status • WEND principles • RENC models • Regional ENC
Coordinating Centre (RENC) • NHS RENC: Primar-Stavanger • Primar-
Stavanger distributors
8.1.2. The IC-ENC concept of updating ENC data 590
International Centre for ENCs (IC-ENC) • The admiralty ENC service
• Non Profit Politics of IC-ENC • Quality assurance • ENC distribution • Unit
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concept • IC-ENC – From concept to reality • ENCs – The challenges ahead
• IC-ENC – Meeting the challenges
8.1.3. Virtual RENC (VRENC) 595
Virtual RENC service • Services available to hydrographic offices from the
Electronic Chart Centre (ECC)
8.1.4. Other solutions of ENC data distribution 598
Go-It-Alone • Future of the RENC concept • Optional SENC distribution of
official ENCs • Production of “small-scale” ENCs • Looking to the future
8.1.5. Digital notices to mariners – New digital products of HO 599
No updates – No ENC • Tentative conclusions • Why a new notices to
mariners system is required? • dKart system of notices to mariners
8.2. Manual, semi-automatic and automatic updating 605
Updating paper charts • Updating official electronic charts • Updating categories
• IHO data protection scheme • Data protection • Encryption of ENC information
• Definition of user permit • How does the mariner check that all updates have
been applied to the official ENC? • ENC service • How are official ENCs named?
• Updating ENCs
8.3. Performing updates on board 612
Performing updates on board • Avoiding the update chore, electronically • Modus
operandi • Co-operative • Work with S-57 format electronic charts in NS • Accepting
and displaying chart updating • Making manual updates • Infrastructure for ENC
updating • A generic solution • Costs and communication technology • Update
infrastructure • Preparation and transfer of chart updates via e-mail • Reception of
update information • C-Map real time updating service
8.4. Chart manager software 629
ENC chart manager • Data management and updating • Primar-Stavanger Chart
Manager utility • How to use the official chart corrections in NS 3000? • Installation
of chart corrections • Installation of new charts • Transas chart updating – chart
assistant
8.5. Updating and safe navigation 635
Updating and safe navigation
8.6. The UKHO updating system for ARCS Navigator and Skipper 639
Admiralty Raster Charts Service (ARCS) • ARCS level of service: Navigator • ARCS
level of service: Skipper • ARCS skipper chart updating • Latest chart updates applied
in seconds
9. Additional Navigation-Related Information Sensors, Display and Function 645
Introduction • Composite radar with radar, AIS and ENC data correlation
9.1. Navigational sensors with potential for connection to ECDIS 650
Connections with other equipment • Navigational sensors • Display of other
navigational information • Future trend • ECS/ECDIS possibilities
9.2. Performance limits concerning availability, accuracy and integrity 659
Behind the accuracy of electronic charts • The navigator’s problem: A critical need for
modern chart surveys • Other ECDIS limitations
9.3. Fall-back sensor systems 664
Connections with other equipment • Fall-back arrangements • Input and output
data and back up and fall-back arrangements • Back-up and fall-back arrangements
alarms and indications
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9.4. Data reference system of each connected sensor 668
Geodetic datums • Geodetic reference systems • Map and chart accuracies
• WGS-84 – Common reference system for ECDIS and radar • Navigation with GPS
• Navigation in this new way • Chart datum • Datum transformation • The shape
of our earth • Understanding chart accuracy counts • Specified chart accuracy
• Positioning of survey data • Digital data
9.5. Selection of appropriate and unambiguous sensor data 675
Selection of appropriate and unambiguous sensor data (position, course, speed, etc.)
• Sensor’s selection
9.6. Radar image superimposition 676
Introduction • Radar Image Overlay (RIO) • Radar as position back-up by ENC object
correlation • Radar overlay in Navi-Sailor 3000 ECDIS – Advantages of Radar Integrator
• Accuracy limitation • Conclusions • Radar with chart display
9.7. ARPA information 688
ARPA information in ECDIS • Functional specifications of ECDIS • Correcting the
vessel position using ARPA information • Trial manoeuvre for avoiding collision with
other vessels
9.8. Automatic track-keeping 695
Track • Automatic track keeping • Autopilot • Channel ECDIS, AIS & Course Trajectory
(CEACT) – Software features • Track control • Automatic Navigation & Track Keeping
System (ANTS) • Vessel advance predictor • Hydrodynamic predictor • Track storing
9.9. Information from radar transponders 700
Definitions of terms related to radar transponders • Vessel detection • Vessel
identification • Vessel tracking • Tracking functions • Functions based on wireless
data communication (EDI) ship/shore • ECDIS – vector chart based on traffic image
(new function of VTS) • Operation with Racons and SARTs • A few words of history
9.10. Universal shipborne automatic identification system AIS 703
AIS transponder • AIS data for collision avoidance • Integration of AIS and ECDIS –
more information, better view, improved safety • Collision avoidance and surveillance
• Improved target identification • How AIS transponder works? • The equipment
• Shore usage • Graphical presentation of targets • Route planning and manoeuvring
depending on the navigational situation • Local information services • Monitoring of
the ship traffic in ports, channels and restricted waters • Enhanced communication
facilities • Connection to any electronic chart or radar • Conclusion • Presentation
of target information
9.11. Selection of additional information 729
Display of additional information on ECDIS • Temporary versus permanent
9.11.1. Weather information in ECDIS 729
Integrated weather information • Additional ECDIS functions • Integrated
Navtex information • UAIS interface • User-adjustable interface • Navtex
Manager • Navtex receivers
9.11.2. Adding oceanographic Marine Information Objects to the ECDIS 734
Marine Information Objects in ECDIS • Introduction • Oceanographic data
for navigation • Oceanographic hierarchy • Incorporation of oceanographic
data into ECDIS • Conclusion
9.11.3. GPS/GNSS and electronic navigation 744
© 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK
xvi Contents
9.12. Reliability and plausibility of sensor input values 746
Reliability and plausibility of sensor input • ECDIS as a decision support system
• Final thoughts
9.13. AML and the Recognised Environmental Picture (REP) 750
Additional Military Layers (AML) • Definition of AML • Concept of Recognised
Environmental Picture (REP) • Maritime Foundation Data (MFD)
10. Voyage Data Recording (Documentation) 757
Voyage Data Recorder • Voyage recording in ECDIS • ECDIS outputs
10.1. Automatic voyage recording 760
Methods of recording • Conception of control, monitoring and recording system of
the ship’s movement • Voyage data recording • Data Recording System (DSR)
10.2. Imposition of time intervals 764
IMO requirements on voyage recording in ECDIS • Author’s concept of ADMAR unit
• Measurement of distance to the nearest navigational danger
10.3. Reconstruction of past track 773
Automatic recording of navigational situation • Log book records on-chart playback
• Playback function • Viewing archive data • Logging functions • Purpose • Printing
out information • Playback of the own ship track in play back utility • Display of the
own ship track in the NS • Electronic ship logbook formation principles
10.4. Electronic log book 780
Electronic logbook • Electronic ship’s log in Navi-Sailor 2400 • Function: Logbook
• Table of events and event parameters in NS 3000 • Electronic ship logbook
formation principles • ECDIS Electronic Log Book as a Vessel Management System
• Voyage data recording and playback in Navmaster ECDIS of PC Maritime
10.5. Composition of voyage reports 787
Records of navigation activities and daily reporting • Voyage report in OceanView of
C-Map • Display Pilot Mode in Navi-Sailor of Transas Marine • Data recorders • End
of Voyage Report (EOV)
10.6. Voyage data recorder VDR 791
Black boxes for ships • VDR carriage requirements • International VDR standardisation
process • VDR features • Flexible I/O subsystem integrates a multitude of data types
• Advanced audio compression • Hardened fixed data capsule • Office Playback
• Remote data recovery via satellite • Ownership of the data • The computerised
voyage reporter • IMO Resolution A.861(20) • Conclusion
11. Errors, Status Indications, Warnings and Alarms 807
‘Exxon Valdez’ lesson • Monitoring technology
11.1. Definition and meaning of status indications, indicators and alarms relating to ECDIS 813
Definitions • Route planning in ECDIS • Route monitoring in ECDIS
11.2. Alarms and indicators list (IMO Res. A.817(19), App.5) 816
Indication/Alarm • Alarms and indicators in IMO Res. A.817(19)
11.3. Nautical indications/alarms and sensor alarms 821
Alarms, indications and warnings • Acknowledgement of alarms • Presentation of
alarms • Bridge Alarm Management System and Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm
(proposal) • Sensor alarms • Alarms group in NS 3000 • Alarms window
11.4. Data and chart alarms/alarms settings 825
Improving safety at sea • Alarm settings in NS 2400 • Setting the alarms in voyage
monitoring mode • Setting the alarms in work with ARPA • Alarm settings in
© 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK
Contents xvii
sailing along the route • Function alarm • Recording of alarm activation and
acknowledgement
11.5. Proper action checklists to avoid alarm situation 829
‘Exxon Valdez’ catastrophe • The cost benefits of electronic charts • What electronic
charts can do? • Faster vessel speeds • Some issues to note • Proper action checklists
to avoid alarm situation • Watch relief procedures • Passage planning criteria and
checklist
11.6. Proper action checklists in alarm situation 836
Introduction • Potential errors in marine navigation • Distributed information – An
unsatisfactory approach? • Alarm handling • Alarm reaction • Example of bridge
procedures – Norwegian Cruise Line
11.7. Errors of interpretation 841
Errors of interpretation (false interpretation of data) • Screen size • Great potential
• Use of SCAMIN • Use of attribute CATZOC on meta object M_QUAL • Data gaps
and overlaps • Coordinate Multiplication Factor (COMF) • Possible ways ahead
• Recommendations • Conclusions
12. Operational Requirements 855
ECDIS – Procedural and organisational considerations • What should you consider
before procuring a digital chart system? • Firm quality control guarantees the safety
of navigation
12.1. System integrity monitoring and maintenance of equipment 860
The digital chart • System integrity monitoring and maintenance of equipment
• IEC 61174 – ENC test data set – General requirements • Data sub-set A – ENC
• Data sub-set B – Automatic updating • Data sub-set C – Manual updating
12.2. Back-up arrangements 871
Back-up requirements • Options for back-up arrangements • Back-up system options
• Appropriate portfolio of up-to-date paper chart as ECDIS back-up
12.3. Risk of overreliance on ECDIS 876
12.3.1. Risk of overreliance 876
Hydrographic data and charts • Risk Assessment method for ECDIS • Risks
and legislation • Risk assessment definitions • Areas of risk • Assessment
process • Practicalities • Benefits of risk assessment
12.3.2. Integrated marine GIS approach in Navigational Charting 884
Introduction • The roles and objective of Hydrographic Service • Customer
aspirations and needs • Provision of charts • Coastal mapping • Coastal
charts database • Integration of coastal database with GIS • Conclusion
12.3.3. Private sector producers of electronic charts and equipment: potential
exposure to liability 886
Introduction • An overview of the products and the risks faced by producers
• Potential claims against producers of electronic chart systems • Possible
claimants • Shielding the producer from liability • Affirmative defences
when faced with a claim • Shifting the blame • Conclusions
Conclusions 895
Why are electronic charts important? • Looking to the future • Operational use
of ECDIS, IAMU model course 3.02 • Where we are • What went wrong? • IHO
response • What needs to be done by the IHO? • IHO CHRIS activities • Amendments
to the ECDIS performance standards (2006) • Carriage requirements for ECDIS
© 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK
xviii Contents
Appendix 1. Resolution A.817(19) Performance Standards for Electronic
Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS) 907
Appendix 2. ECDIS Model Course 921
Appendix 3. Reference Documents Concerning ECDIS, RCDS & ECS 925
Appendix 4. Global ENC Coverage 927
Annex A. Criteria IC-ENC for Appointing Value Added Resellers VARS 962
Annex B. IHO worldwide on-line chart catalogue 963
Appendix 5. ECDIS Related Web Sites (Internet Addresses) 968
Appendix 6. Glossary of ECDIS-Related Terms 971
Appendix 7. Main Questions on ECDIS 1000
Appendix 8. The Use of Risk Assessment Methodology When Operating ECDIS
in the Raster Chart Display System (RCDS) Mode 1013
Appendix 9. Revised Performance Standards for Electronic Chart Display
and Information Systems (ECDIS) MSC.232(82) 1026
Appendix 10. Admiralty Vector Chart Service (AVCS) 1042
Bibliography 1053
Subject index 1095
CD-ROM With PowerPoint Presentation – The IAMU Model Course
on Operational Use of ECDIS (inside back cover)

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