SKM ® 16-Nov-2020 22:17

Maritime Informatics


Year: 2021
Language: english
Author: Mikael Lind, Michalis Michaelides, Robert Ward, Richard Thomas Watson
Genre: Textbook
Publisher: Springer International Publishing
Edition: 1st ed.
ISBN: 9783030508913, 9783030508920
Format: PDF
Quality: eBook
Pages count: 431
Description: This first book on Maritime Informatics describes the potential for Maritime Informatics to enhance the shipping industry. It examines how decision making in the industry can be improved by digital technology and introduces the technology required to make Maritime Informatics a distinct and valuable discipline. Based on participating in EU funded research over the last six years to improve the shipping industry, the editors stipulate that there is a need for the new discipline of Maritime Informatics, which studies the application of information systems to increasing the efficiency, safety, and ecological sustainability of the world’s shipping industry. This book examines competition and collaboration between shipping companies, and also companies who serve shipping needs, such as ports and terminals. Practical examples from leading experts give the reader real-world examples for better understanding.

Contents

Table of contents :
Foreword
Preface
Contents
Contributors
About the Editors
Acronyms and Initialisms
Part I Maritime Informatics as a Better Glue
References
The Origins of Maritime Informatics
References
Shipping: A Self-Organising Ecosystem
1 The Sharing Economy
1.1 Why an Ecosystem?
2 What Economic Organisational Problems Does an Ecosystem Solve?
2.1 Episodic Tight Coupling and Data Sharing
3 The Components of a Digitised Self-Organising Ecosystem
4 Maritime Informatics for a Self-Organising Ecosystem
5 Innovation in SOEs
5.1 Physical Innovation
5.2 Digital Innovation
6 The Maritime Informatics Stack
6.1 Global
6.2 Regional/National
6.3 Structural
6.4 Decision Support
6.5 Data Stream Mining
6.6 Data Exchange
6.7 Data Communications
7 Conclusion
References
The Necessity of Standards for Maritime Informatics in ShipOperations
1 Introduction
2 The Need for an ISO Software Governance Standard Aboard Ships
3 Development of the ISO Standard and the Smart-Shipping Future
4 Towards the Future
References
The Port as a Set of Socio-technical Systems: A Multi-organisationalView
1 The Port as a Conglomerate
2 Ports as Socio-technical Systems
3 Conceiving Multi-organisational Business Entities
3.1 Foundation: Value Creation in Multi-organisational Business Processes
3.2 Actor Roles in a Multi-organisational Setting
4 Towards a Multi-organisational Conception of a Port
4.1 The Port Framed in a Multi-organisational Transport Context
4.2 Assignment Logic of the Port as a Transhipment Hub
5 Technology and Port Operations
6 Change and Maritime Informatics
References
Digitalisation in Maritime Regional and Global Supply Chains
1 Introduction
2 Stakeholders and Their Key Drivers
2.1 Manufacturers
2.2 Retailers
2.3 Online Sales, Web Shops and Marketplaces
2.4 Supply Chain Improvements by BCOs
2.5 Commodity Trading
2.6 Logistic Service Providers: Not Ship Oriented
2.7 Logistic Service Provider: Ship Oriented
2.8 Port Authorities
2.9 Government/Authorities
2.10 Summary of Stakeholder Information Exchange Needs
3 Technologies and (Lack of) Standards
4 Conclusions
References
Sustainable Maritime Transport and Maritime Informatics
1 Introduction
2 Sustainable Development and Impact of Shipping
3 Sustainability in Shipping
4 IMO and Its Role in Environmental Sustainability
5 Accounting for GHG Emissions from Shipping
6 Global Maritime Energy Efficiency Partnerships: A GEF-UNDP-IMO Project
7 The Global MTCC Network Project
8 The Role of Data in Maritime Transport Sustainability
9 What's Next
10 Issues for Discussion
References
Connecting Cities and Ports via Maritime Informatics
1 Introduction
1.1 Port and City Cooperation in the Industrial and Modern Era
1.2 The Environmental Strain
1.3 The Complexity of the Smart Ports and Smart Cities
2 Digital and Non-digital Cooperation Between Stakeholders
2.1 The Challenging Task of Defining “Smart”
2.2 Defining Smart in the Ports
2.3 What Is All This “Fuss” About Being Smart? Why Bother?
2.4 What Is a Smart Port and a Smart City?
2.5 Smart City and Smart Port Indicators
3 The Challenges
3.1 The Main Functional Axis at the Port of Barcelona and Examples of Applied Solutions
3.2 The First Movers
3.3 APIs, Data Value and Data Quality
3.4 Governance, Planning, and Cooperation in Cities and Ports
4 The Opportunities
4.1 The Value of Open Data
4.2 Scalability
5 Summary and Conclusion
References
Maritime Informatics for Increased Collaboration
1 Introduction
2 Different Types of Trade and Different Business Models
2.1 Container Traffic and Liner Services
2.2 The Dry and Liquid Bulk Industry and Irregular, Often Short-Notice Port Calls
2.3 RORO Trade and the Need for Detailed Tracking and Scheduling
2.4 The Cruise Industry and Its Long-Term Planning of Port Visits
2.5 The Need for Collaboration and Digital Data Sharing Independent of Trade
3 The Ports of the World and the Complexity of Port Call Operations
3.1 The Ports of the World
3.2 The Complexity of Port Call Operations
3.3 One Size Does Not Fit All
4 New Opportunities Due to Digitalisation
4.1 Benefits for a Multitude of Stakeholders
4.2 The Role of Maritime Authorities in Collaborative Data Sharing
4.3 Roles Are Likely to Change and Evolve Under Digitalisation
5 Current Digitalisation Initiatives in the Maritime Sector
5.1 Community-Driven Standardisations and Digital Tools Emerging
5.2 The Use of Diverse Digital Technologies Enabling Enhanced Efficiencies
6 The Importance of International Standards
6.1 Important New Standards for the Maritime Transportation Chain
6.2 Resistance to Standards
7 Connected Maritime Operations: Smart Ports and Smart Ships
7.1 Connected Maritime Operations: A Must for an Efficient Global Transport Chain
7.2 Smart Ports
7.3 Smart Ships
8 Concluding Remarks
References
The Future of Shipping: Collaboration Through Digital Data Sharing
1 Society Calls for Action
2 Transitions Being Empowered by Maritime Informatics
2.1 From Data Sharing to Data Verification
2.2 From Disconnected to Connected
2.3 From Shrouded to Transparent Visibility
2.4 From Semi-automatic to Full Automation
2.5 From Onboard to Remote Operations
2.6 From Static Electrical Grid Demand to a Flexible Demand/Supply Microgrid
3 Concluding Remarks
References
Part II Maritime Informatics and Decision-Making
References
Digital Data Sharing for Enhanced Decision-Making
1 Introduction
2 Standardisation and Digitisation
3 Data Versus Information
4 Enhancing Decision-Making Through Data Sharing
5 Increasing Reliability and Value of Information Through Fusion of Data Streams
6 Static and Dynamic Data Streams to Support Collaborative Decision-Making
7 Conclusion
References
Decision Support for Port Visits
1 Introduction
2 Fundamentals of Coordinated Port Operations and the Potential Role of Data Sharing
3 Systems of Record Provide a Basis for Decision-Making
3.1 Systems of Production Create Systems of Record
3.2 The Value of Systems of Record in Actor's Planning
3.3 Decision-Making in Ports: It Is Not Just About Serving Ships
4 Foundational Building Blocks of the PortCDM Concept
5 Shared Situational Awareness Enabling Time Slot Allocation
5.1 Time Slot Allocation Can Improve Maritime Operations
5.2 Time Slot Allocation: A Common Approach for Synchronisation in Human Practices
5.3 Synchronising Tightly Coupled Events During a Port Visit
5.4 Improved Capital Productivity
5.5 Time Slot Allocation Requires Standardised Data Sharing and Common Situational Awareness
5.6 Towards a Common Approach for Time Slot Allocation Empowered by PortCDM
6 Outlook: What Will Happen Next?
References
Decision Support for Voyaging
1 Introduction
2 The Ship as a Digital Information Source
3 Automatic Identification System and Long-Range Identification
4 Standardised Presentation of Information in Ships
5 Navigation
5.1 Ships and Supporting Information Technologies for Safe and Efficient Navigation
5.2 The Four Stages of Safe Passage Between Ports
5.3 Appraisal
5.4 Passage Planning of a Ship Voyage
5.5 Ship Navigation Execution and Monitoring
5.6 The IMO e-Navigation Concept
5.7 Other e-Navigation Implementations
6 Hubs for Information Consumers and Utilisers
7 Voyage Monitoring
7.1 Foundational Processes in Voyage Monitoring
7.2 From Sharing Information on Movements Already Made to also Sharing Information About Intended Moves
7.3 Supporting Services Related to Voyage Monitoring
7.4 More Sources of Digital Data from Ships
8 Communication Technologies
9 Concluding Remarks
References
A Smart Grid in Container Terminals: Cost Drivers for Using the Energy Storage of Electric Transport Vehicles for Grid Stability
1 Introduction
2 Background
3 Setting
4 Research Approach
4.1 Phase 1: Literature Review
4.2 Phase 2: Expert Evaluation
4.3 Phase 3: Aggregation
5 Results and Findings
5.1 Literature-Based Model
5.2 Case-Specific Model
5.3 Applied Model
6 Discussion
7 Conclusion
References
Decision Support in Short Sea Shipping
1 Introduction
2 Environmental Sustainability of Short Sea Shipping
3 Port Efficiency and Time in Ports
4 PortCDM for Increased Efficiency in Short Sea Shipping
5 Shortsea Promotion Centre Norway
6 Short Sea Shipping in the Cyprus Context
6.1 Cyprus in the International Maritime Sector
6.2 Port of Limassol and the Importance of Port-2-Port Communication
6.3 Benefits of Enhanced Port-2-Port Collaboration
7 Conclusions
References
Maritime Informatics for Recreational and Fishing Vessels
1 Introduction: Merchant Ships vs. Non-merchant Ships
2 Information Services for Recreational Boats
2.1 The Characteristics of Recreational Boating
2.2 Digital Interfaces for Recreational Boats
3 Information Services for Fishing Vessels
3.1 The Characteristics of Fishing
3.2 Digital Interfaces for Fishing
3.3 Digitalisation for Monitoring, Control and Surveillance for Fishing
3.4 Emerging Digital Fish Marketplaces Meeting Demand and Supply
4 Future Digitalisation for Recreational and Fishing Vessels
5 Concluding Remarks
References
Support for Financial Decision-Making
1 Financial Management in Shipping
1.1 A Myriad of Actors Defining a Maritime Transport Chain
1.2 The Spread of Costs and Risks Throughout the Value Chain
2 The Financing of Maritime Transport Services
3 The Different Maritime Transport Costs
3.1 Voyage Costs and the Role of Maritime Informatics
3.2 Operational Costs and the Role of Maritime Informatics
3.3 Capital Costs and the Role of Maritime Informatics
3.4 ESG Costs and the Role of Maritime Informatics
4 Maritime Informatics for Financial Decision-Making
5 Conclusion
References
Green Supply Chain Management, Environmental Controls and Regulations in Shipping
1 Introduction
2 Laws, Regulations and Stakeholders' Actions
2.1 International Actions and Regulations
2.2 EU Law
2.3 National Laws and Enforcement
2.4 Stakeholders' Actions and Pressures
3 Environmental Regulations in the Shipping Industry
3.1 Air Emissions/Pollution
3.2 Ballast Water Management
4 The Need for a GSCM Strategy
5 GSCM Practices
5.1 Internal Environmental Management
5.2 Green Shipping Management Practices
5.3 External Green Collaboration
6 The Role of Digitalisation on Environmental Performance in Shipping
7 Conclusion
References
Global Data Exchange Standards: The Basis for Future Smart Container Digital Services
1 Importance of International Standards Development
1.1 Introduction to the Smart Container
1.2 Why Global Multimodal Data Exchange Standards Are Important for Usage of Smart Containers
1.3 Standards Organisations: UN/CEFACT and Other Related Organisations
2 UN/CEFACT Smart Container Project
2.1 UN/CEFACT Smart Container Development Methodology for Data Standards' Messaging and Communications
2.2 Smart Container Project Current Status
2.3 SOA Architecture Development Approach for the Smart Container Solution
2.4 The Role of APIs
3 Conclusion
References
Part III Maritime Informatics Technology
References
Big Maritime Data Management
1 Maritime Data Value Chain
2 Data Acquisition
2.1 Data Sources
2.2 Data Formats and Encodings
2.3 Data Acquisition Frameworks
3 Data Pre-processing
3.1 Data Curation and Cleaning
3.2 Data Integration
3.3 Data Transformation
3.4 Data Reduction
4 Data Storage
4.1 Distributed File Systems
4.2 NoSQL Data Stores
4.3 Spatiotemporal Systems
5 Data Usage
5.1 Query Processing Systems
6 Conclusion
References
Spatiotemporal Data Analytics for the Maritime Industry
1 Introduction to Spatiotemporal Data Analytics
2 Data Analytics
3 Spatiotemporal Data Properties
4 Spatiotemporal Data Analysis
5 Challenges to Spatiotemporal Data Analytics
6 Application Areas of Spatiotemporal Data Analytics in the Maritime Industry
6.1 Application Area 1: Long-Term Route Planning
6.2 Application Area 2: Environment Preservation and Monitoring
6.3 Application Area 3: Collision Avoidance
6.4 Application Area 4: Cargo Tracking
6.5 Application Area 5: Port Call Optimisation
7 Examples of Spatiotemporal Data Analytics Using Graph Databases
7.1 Step 1: Continuous Spatiotemporal Data Stream from a Vessel on a Voyage
7.2 Step 2: Integration of the Instance `Port Hub' as an Addressee
7.3 Step 3: Ship-to-Ship Communication
7.4 Step 4: Combination of Sensor Data and Spatiotemporal Data
7.5 Step 5: Reflecting the Complexity of a Port Call Process
7.6 Consolidating the Single Steps to One Framework for Spatiotemporal Data Analytics in a Maritime Environment
8 Conclusions
References
Data Visualisation Tools for Enhanced Situational Awareness in Maritime Operations
1 Introduction
2 Visualisation
2.1 State-of-the-Art Associated with Visualisation Tools
3 Using a Dashboard for Visualisation
3.1 Spatial-Temporal Data Visualisation
4 Using Dashboards for Common Situational Awareness
4.1 Visualisation of a Port Call Using a Metro Map
4.2 Coordination of Port Calls Through Visualisation
5 Conclusions
References
Intelligent Maritime Information Acquisition and Representation for Decision Support
1 Introduction
2 Maritime Data and Intelligent Sensing Systems
3 Data Assimilation, Data-Driven Modelling, and Forecasting
4 Cognitive Fusion Methods
5 Conclusions
References
AIS Data Analytics for Intelligent Maritime Surveillance Systems
1 Introduction
2 Maritime Traffic Surveillance Systems
3 Preprocessing Framework for Big AIS Data
3.1 Lossless Compression Algorithm
3.2 Access and Decompression Algorithm
3.3 Aggregation for Further Data Compression
4 A Practical Case for Implementing the Preprocessing
4.1 Input Data
4.2 Lossless Compression and Access
4.3 Vessel Movement Classification and Spatial-Temporal Aggregation
4.4 An Application Case of Aggregated AIS Data: Vessel Voyage Event Detection
5 Conclusion
References
Index

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