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Guide to Ship Sanitation


Year: 2011
Language: english
Author: WHO
Genre: Guide
Publisher: World Health Organization
Edition: 3
ISBN: 978 92 4 154669 0
Format: PDF
Quality: eBook
Pages count: 171
Description: The third edition of the Guide to Ship Sanitation presents the public health significance of ships in terms of disease and highlights the importance of applying appropriate control measures. It is intended to be a basis for the development of national approaches to controlling the hazards, providing a framework for policy-making and local decision-making. It may also be used as a reference for regulators, ship operators and ship builders as well as for assessing the potential health impact of projects involving the design of ships.
The preparation of this third edition of the Guide to ship sanitation involved the participation of many experts from diverse developing and developed countries.
The work was facilitated greatly by the existence of prior editions and by a systematic review of outbreaks on board ships prepared by Dr Roisin Rooney, WHO, Geneva, which was previously published by WHO (2001).
The international branch of the National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, USA, seconded a staff member to WHO Geneva whose main line of activity was the initial development of this guide.

Contents

Foreword....................................................................................................................... vii
Acknowledgements......................................................................................................ix
Acronyms and abbreviations................................................................................. xiii
1 Introduction................................................................................................................1
1.1 Significance of ships to health...............................................................................1
1.2 Scope, purpose and objective................................................................................2
1.3 Harmonization with other international regulations.................................3
1.3.1 International Health Regulations......................................................3
1.3.2 International Labour Organization...................................................4
1.3.3 International Maritime Organization..............................................7
1.4 Roles and responsibilities.......................................................................................8
1.4.1 Designer/constructor.............................................................................8
1.4.2 Owner/operator.......................................................................................8
1.4.3 Master/crew ..............................................................................................9
1.4.4 Port authorities.........................................................................................9
1.5 Structure of the Guide to ship sanitation........................................................10
2 Water.......................................................................................................................... 11
2.1 Background................................................................................................................11
2.1.1 Standards related to potable water...............................................13
2.1.2 Role of the International Health Regulations (2005)............14
2.1.3 Potable water sources from ashore and uses on
board ships...............................................................................................15
2.1.4 Health risks associated with potable water on ships............16
2.1.5 Bottled water and ice...........................................................................18
2.1.6 Definitions, overview and objectives of water
safety plans.............................................................................................19
2.2 Guidelines....................................................................................................................21
2.2.1 Guideline 2.1: Water safety plan for shore supplies,
delivery system and bunker boats or barges ...........................21
2.2.2 Guideline 2.2: Water quantity..........................................................25
2.2.3 Guideline 2.3: Water safety plan for ship water supply........26
2.2.4 Guideline 2.4: Independent surveillance....................................47
iv Guide to ship sanitation
3 Food............................................................................................................................ 55
3.1 Background................................................................................................................55
3.1.1 Food supply and transfer chain.......................................................55
3.1.2 Health risks associated with food on ships................................55
3.1.3 International Health Regulations (2005)....................................58
3.1.4 Overview of food safety plans, and hazard analysis and
critical control points..........................................................................59
3.2 Guidelines ..................................................................................................................62
3.2.1 Guideline 3.1: Food safety plans.....................................................63
3.2.2 Guideline 3.2: Food receipt...............................................................64
3.2.3 Guideline 3.3: Equipment and utensils .......................................67
3.2.4 Guideline 3.4: Materials......................................................................69
3.2.5 Guideline 3.5: Facilities ......................................................................71
3.2.6 Guideline 3.6: Storage, preparation and service spaces.......75
3.2.7 Guideline 3.7: Toilet and personal hygiene facilities .............78
3.2.8 Guideline 3.8: Dishwashing...............................................................80
3.2.9 Guideline 3.9: Safe food storage .....................................................82
3.2.10 Guideline 3.10: Maintenance, cleaning and disinfection......84
3.2.11 Guideline 3.11: Personal hygiene...................................................85
3.2.12 Guideline 3.12: Training.....................................................................87
3.2.13 Guideline 3.13: Food wastes ............................................................88
4 Recreational water environments.................................................................... 89
4.1 Background................................................................................................................89
4.1.1 Health risks associated with recreational water
environments on ships........................................................................89
4.1.2 Recreational water environment guidelines.............................91
4.2 Guidelines....................................................................................................................91
4.2.1 Guideline 4.1: Design and operation.............................................92
4.2.2 Guideline 4.2: Pool hygiene ........................................................... 105
4.2.3 Guideline 4.3: Monitoring............................................................... 107
5 Ballast water..........................................................................................................111
5.1 Background............................................................................................................. 111
5.1.1 Health risks associated with ballast water on ships........... 111
5.1.2 Standards............................................................................................... 111
5.2 Guidelines................................................................................................................. 112
5.2.1 Guideline 5.1: Ballast water management............................... 113
5.2.2 Guideline 5.2: Ballast water treatment and disposal.......... 114
Contents v
6 Waste management and disposal...................................................................117
6.1 Background............................................................................................................. 117
6.1.1 Health risks associated with wastes on ships........................ 117
6.1.2 Standards............................................................................................... 118
6.2 Guidelines................................................................................................................. 118
6.2.1 Guideline 6.1: Sewage and greywater management........... 119
6.2.2 Guideline 6.2: Solid waste management ................................. 121
6.2.3 Guideline 6.3: Health-care and pharmaceutical waste
management......................................................................................... 123
7 Vector and reservoir control............................................................................125
7.1 Background............................................................................................................. 125
7.1.1 Health risks associated with vectors on ships....................... 125
7.1.2 Standards .............................................................................................. 126
7.2 Guidelines................................................................................................................. 126
7.2.1 Guideline 7.1: Insect vector control............................................ 127
7.2.2 Guideline 7.2: Rodent vector control......................................... 129
8 Controlling infectious diseases in the environment.................................133
8.1 Background............................................................................................................. 133
8.1.1 Health risks associated with persistent infectious
agents on ships.................................................................................... 133
8.2 Guidelines................................................................................................................. 136
8.2.1 Guideline 8.1: Transmission routes ........................................... 138
8.2.2 Guideline 8.2: Air quality................................................................ 139
8.2.3 Guideline 8.3: Cases and outbreaks............................................ 140
Annex Examples of hazards, control measures, monitoring
procedures and corrective actions for the ship water
supply system............................................................................................143
Glossary.......................................................................................................................147
References...................................................................................................................151
vi Guide to ship sanitation
Tables
Table 2-1 Pathogens and toxins linked to outbreaks of
waterborne disease associated with ships,
1 January 1970 – 30 June 2003................................................................16
Table 2-2 Examples of parameters frequently tested in
potable water and typical values.............................................................50
Table 3‑1 Agents associated with foodborne disease outbreaks
within ships, 1 January 1970 – 30 June 2003.....................................57
Table 3‑2 Examples of proper food receipt temperatures
and conditions for foods supplied to ship............................................66
Figures
Figure 2-1 Schematic of ship drinking-water supply chain, showing
1) source, 2) transfer and delivery system and
3) ship water system.....................................................................................12
Figure 2-2 Application of water safety plans............................................................20

Foreword

Historically, ships have played a significant role in the global transmission
of infectious disease. Some of the earliest recorded evidence of attempts
to control human disease transmission via ships dates to the 14th
century, when ports denied access to ships suspected of carrying
the plague. In the 19th century, the spread of cholera pandemics was
thought to have been facilitated by merchant shipping. A World Health
Organization (WHO) review identified more than 100 disease outbreaks
associated with ships between 1970 and 2003 (Rooney et al., 2004).
Today’s world fleet of propelled seagoing merchant ships of more than
100 billion tonnes comprises 99 741 ships, with an average age of
22 years, registered in more than 150 nations and crewed by more than
a million seafarers of virtually every nationality (IHS Fairplay, 2010).
World seaborne trade figures suggest that the amount of goods loaded on
ships has increased considerably in recent decades; in 2007, it reached
7.3 billion tonnes, a volume increase of 4.8% over the previous year
(United Nations, 2008). During the three decades to 2008, the annual
average growth rate of world seaborne trade was estimated at 3.1%
(United Nations, 2008). The shipping industry also supports tourism
and recreation. American cruise ships alone carried 13.4 million people
during 2009, for an average period of 7.3 days per person, a passenger
number increase averaging 4.7% per year over the preceding four years
(Cruise Lines International Association, 2010). Naval ships also carry
considerable numbers of crew, sometimes more than 5000 per ship.
Ferries are ubiquitous around the world in port cities and at some river
crossings and are used by many people on a daily basis.
Because of the international nature of ship transport, international
regulations relating to sanitary aspects of ship transport have been in
place for more than half a century. The International Sanitary Regulations
of 1951 were replaced by the International Health Regulations (IHR)
adopted by WHO in 1969. The IHR were revised at the Fifty-eighth
World Health Assembly in 2005.
The WHO Guide to ship sanitation has become the official WHO global
reference on health requirements for ship construction and operation.
Its original purpose was to standardize the sanitary measures taken in
ships, to safeguard the health of travellers and workers and to prevent
the spread of infection from one country to another. Today, however,
given the number of specific guidance documents, conventions and
regulations currently available that provide full accounts of the design
viii Guide to ship sanitation
and operational detail relating to ships, the primary aim of the guide is
to present the public health significance of ships in terms of disease and
to highlight the importance of applying appropriate control measures.
The guide was first published in 1967 and amended in 1987. This revised
third edition of the guide has been prepared to reflect the changes in
construction, design and size of ships since the 1960s and the existence
of new diseases (e.g. legionellosis) that were not foreseen when the
1967 guide was published.
The guide has been developed through an iterative series of drafting
and peer-review steps. In revising the guide, expert meetings were held
in Miami, United States of America (USA), on 3–4 October 2001 and in
Vancouver, Canada, on 8–10 October 2002 to discuss and recommend
the proposed contents. Expert meetings to review the draft guide were
held on 25 October 2007 in Montreal, Canada, and on 12–13 October
2009 in Lyon, France. Participants represented cruise ship operators,
seafarer associations, collaborating member states for the IHR 2005,
port state control, port health authorities and other regulatory
agencies. A complete list of contributors to the guide can be found in the
Acknowledgements section.
The Guide to ship sanitation and the International medical guide for ships
(WHO, 2007) are companion volumes oriented towards preventive
health and curative health, respectively, on board ships.
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