zxc ® 03-Nov-2014 00:44

Fire Safety at Sea


Year: 2002
Language: english
Author: James Cowley
Publisher: Published by the Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology IMarEST
Series: МЕР Series, Volume 1, Part 5
ISBN: 1-902536-42-8
Format: PDF
Quality: Scanned pages
Number of pages: 239
Description: No single volume could cover the scope of the subject of fire protection, indeed the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) documents alone occupy many reams of regulatory material. This МЕР is comprised of selected material of primary interest or necessity for all persons involved in maritime affairs, together with references for those seeking further information.
The aim of this book is to supplement information on the equipment and systems found on board ships, with a background to the need for their introduction, development and experience in their use. Reference has been made to specific ship casualties, therefore, the name and nationality of the ship casualty has been included. Many Flag States and shipping companies would prefer not to see their casualties mentioned, therefore, the policy adopted in this publication is to use names only when the details of the casualty are in the public domain, e.g. because some State (not necessarily the Flag State) has published a report or a Public Inquiry has been held. By learning from past failures, future accidents may be prevented. It is hoped that this type of explanatory information will stimulate interest and provide an understanding of the many regulations being retrospectively applied to ships in service.
Structural fire protection has been given particular emphasis since its principles and limitations appear to be less well understood than other shipboard systems. This situation probably exists because, being a passive system, it is not actively used by personnel and also because many existing cargo ships have minimal structural fire protection.

Contents

Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 The Regulatory Framework 1
1.2 Compliance with the Regulations is not Sufficient 2
1.3 The Regulatory Process 3
1.4 Major Revision of the SOLAS Fire Protection Regulations 5
1.5 Fire Safety Objectives and Functional Requirements of the
SOLAS Convention 5
2 Combustion and Fires 7
2.1 Sources of Ignition 7
2.2 Aspects of Combustion 10
2.3 Diffusion Flames 13
2.4 Pre-Mixed Flames 14
2.5 Explosions 15
2.6 Hazardous Gases and Reduced Oxygen 18
2.7 Physical Factors 19
3 Fire Extinguishing and Extinguishing Media 25
3.1 Methods of Extinguishing Fires: The Fire Tetrahedron 26
3.2 Properties of Extinguishing Media 28
3.3 Halogenated Hydrocarbons (Halons) 42
4 Fire Extinguishing Equipment 44
4.1 Fire Extinguisher Performance 44
4.2 Portable Extinguishers 45
4.3 Foam-Making Equipment 58
4.4 Fire Hoses and Nozzles 61
4.5 Fire-Fighters Outfits 62
4.6 Emergency Escape Breathing Devices 65
5 Machinery Spaces 66
5.1 Fire Prevention Measures 66
5.2 Regulatory Measures 67
5.3 IMO Action on High-Pressure Fuel Oil Systems 70
5.4 Additional Requirements for Ships with Periodically
Unmanned Machinery Spaces 76
5.5 IACS Requirements 76
5.6 Low Pressure Fuel Oil Systems 77
5.7 Pre-Commissioning Measures 78
5.8 Fire-Fighting Arrangements 78
6 Fire and Explosions from Machinery 90
6.1 Gear Box Explosions 90
6.2 Crankcase Explosions 92
6.3 Scavenge Fires 101
7 Bunkers and Bunkering 103
7.1 Casualties during Bunkering 103
7.2 Installation and Operational Faults 106
7.3 Precautions during Bunkering 110
7.4 On-Board Planning Prior to Bunkering Щ
7.5 Heating Oil in Double Bottom Tanks 112
7.6 Bunker Tank Space Flammability 113
7.7 Flashpoint and Light Hydrocarbon Release 113
8 Dry Cargo Spaces 115
8.1 Dry Cargo Ships 115
8.2 Ro-Ro Vessels 119
9 Structural Fire Protection 121
9.1 Passenger Ships 121
9.2 Cargo Ships 129
9.3 Fire Divisions and Fire Tests 130
9.4 Fire Integrity of Bulkheads and Decks 134
9.5 Other Fire Tests 135
9.6 Ro-Ro Vessels 140
9.7 Low-Level Lighting 143
10 Automatic Sprinkler Systems and Fire Detection 147
10.1 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 147
10.2 Fire Detection 155
10.3 Types of Detector 158
10.4 Flame Detectors 164
11 Tankers 172
11.1 Oil Tankers 172
11.2 Chemical Tankers 184
11.3 Gas Carriers 185
12 Ships Under Repair 190
12.1 In Port - Scope of the Problems 190
12.2 Repairs at Sea 197
12.3 Acetylene and its Dangers 199
12.4 Polymers and their Fire Hazard 206
13 Shipboard Organisation, Fire Drills and Inspections 208
13.1 National and International Regulations 209
13.2 Training Manuals 209
13.3 Fire Safety Operational Booklets 210
13.4 Potential Hazards and Preparedness 210
13.5 Fire Parties and Emergencies 213
13.6 Fire Control Plans and Maintenance Manual 214
13.7 Contingency Planning 214
13.8 Summary Relating to Statutory Manuals and Instructions 215
13.9 Audits, Surveys and Inspections 216
14 Fire Casualties and Lessons Learned 219
14.1 Representative Casualties 219
14.2 Case Study 225
14.3 Comments on the Representative Casualties and the Case Study 229
14.4 Smoking 229
14.5 Loss of Life in Fire Casualties 231
14.6 Adequacy of the Statutory Requirements 231
14.7 Responsibilities 232
 
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