zxc ® 15-Mar-2015 14:34

Electrical Installations in Hazardous Areas

Year: 1998
Language: english
Author: Alan McMillan
Publisher: Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd
Edition: 1
ISBN: 0 7506 3768 4
Format: PDF
Quality: Scanned pages + text layer
Pages count: 678
Description: The technology of application of electrical equipment in explosive atmospheres is very old, dating almost from the original application of electricity to apparatus other than lighting. From its origins it has been developed in most industrialized countries with the United Kingdom, Germany and the United Sates of America being in the vanguard. As the world moves closer together this technology has, like all others, been coordinated so that its detail will be the same in all countries, principally to allow free marketing around the world. This has led to more detailed standard requirements particularly in the case of apparatus construction.
In addition, by developing practical examples of their use, it will assist in their application. This field is not one for inexperienced engineers and technologists and thus must be approached with care. In addition there are many local conditions which can vary the advice given here and those involved need to be aware of this and have sufficient expertise to determine conditions under which additional requirements are necessary and those, much less common, where relaxations are possible. The onus is, of course, always on the occupier of a location to be able to jus* what is done on safety grounds and it is hoped that this book will assist in this activity.
The contents here relate to the situation in the UK but differences in Europe and other counties are not great and its content should be useful elsewhere. Finally, unlike the situation historically existing, where this technology was often applied in isolation, it is now important to recognize that it can only be applied as a part of an overall safety strategy. That is not to say that its requirements can be ignored if they adversely affect other safety features but rather that, if such is the case, an alternative approach to achievement of its requirements should be sought. It should always be remembered that electrical installations in explosive atmospheres should only exist where necessary (i.e., where they can be fully justified).


Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Area classification 22
Chapter 3 Area classification practice for gases vapours and mists in freely ventilated situations 43
Chapter 4 Calculation of release rates and the extents of hazardous areas 87
Chapter 5 Area classification practice for gases vapours and mists in areas which are not freely ventilated 125
Chapter 6 Area classification practice for dusts 149
Chapter 7 Design philosophy for electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres 164
Chapter 8 General requirements for explosion protected apparatus gas vapour and mist risks 178
Chapter 9 Apparatus using protection concepts encapsulation m oil immersion o and powder filling q 209
Chapter 10 Apparatus using protection concept flameproof enclosure d 226
Chapter 11 Apparatus using protection concept pressurization p 275
Chapter 12 Apparatus using protection concept increased safety e 296
Chapter 13 Apparatus and systems using protection concept intrinsic safety i 331
Chapter 14 Apparatus using protection concept N n 427
Chapter 15 Protection concepts for apparatus for dust risks 456
Chapter 16 Other methods of protection and future apparatus requirements 474
Chapter 17 Selection of power supply apparatus and interconnecting cabling system for both gasvapourmist risks and dust risks 482
Chapter 18 Installations in explosive atmospheres of gas vapour mist and dust 503
Chapter 19 Installation of pressurized apparatus and other uses of the pressurization technique 538
Chapter 20 Installation of intrinsically safe apparatusassociated apparatus and intrinsically safe systems i 566
Chapter 21 Documentation inspection test and maintenance of explosion protected apparatus systems and installations 598
Chapter 22 Radio frequency radiation and static electricity 616
Glossary 628


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