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Earth Exploration–Satellite Service


Year: 2011
Language: english
Author: ITU
Genre: Handbook
Format: PDF
Quality: eBook
Pages count: 96
Description: Earth exploration-satellite systems are used to gather data about the Earth and its natural phenomena. These satellites use active and/or passive sensors onboard the spacecraft to obtain data on the Earth’s land, sea, and atmosphere for the purpose of studying and monitoring the Earth’s climate and environment, amongst many other related scientific applications. Earth exploration-satellites used for weather-related purposes are known as meteorological-satellites (MetSats). MetSats can operate within the Earth exploration-satellite service or in their own more specialized service known as the meteorological-satellite service. EESS satellites are frequently divided into two parts – the satellite bus and the payload. The satellite bus includes the physical structure of the satellite and all the systems needed to support the instruments carried on board. The instruments are called the payload and include sensors of one of two types, active or passive. Active sensors are radar-like measuring instruments in the Earth exploration-satellite service which obtain information by transmitting radio waves and then receiving their reflected energy. Passive sensors are very sensitive receivers in the Earth exploration-satellite service which measure the electromagnetic energy emitted, absorbed or scattered by the Earth’s surface or atmosphere. In practice, they are instruments which measure the natural noise floor. In addition to the data collected by satellites, data may also be collected from airborne or ground-based platforms to supplement and calibrate the satellite data. All of this collected data must also be transmitted to other platforms or to earth stations for additional processing and distribution. The data from Earth exploration-satellites enable a diverse set of scientific applications which provide countless societal benefits to all humans. As a rule, the scientific data and the associated data products are shared with all nations, regardless of which nation built, launched, or operates the satellite. There are, however, a growing number of commercial remote sensing missions which sell their data; however, during a disaster situation, they share their data with disaster response agencies.

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