mmh ® 02-Nov-2019 12:03

Diploma in Ship Superintendency - Module 6


Year: 2015
Language: english
Author: Lloyds Maritime Academy
Genre: Handbook
Format: PDF
Quality: eBook
Pages count: 238
Description: NA

Contents

2
CONTENTS
General Introduction ................................................................................................................... 10
1. THE ROLE OF THE TECHNICAL SUPERTINTENDENT ......................................................... 11
1.1 Supervising Vessel Engineering and Compliance with Regulations .................................... 11
1.2 Keeping Mandatory Certificates Valid ........................................................................... 13
1.3 The Need to be Prepared for Class Surveys .................................................................. 14
1.4 The Harmonised System ............................................................................................ 14
1.5 Harmonised System of Ship Survey and Certification: .................................................... 15
1.6 ISM, MARPOL and ISPS .............................................................................................. 16
1.6.1 International Safety Management Code 2014 Edition ........................................ 16
1.6.2 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution by Ships – MARPOL 73/78 ... 16
1.6.3 International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) .......................... 20
2. NAVAL ARCHITECTURE .................................................................................................... 27
2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 27
2.2 Fundamentals of Naval Architecture ............................................................................. 27
2.3 Hydrodynamics of Ships, Resistance and Propulsion ...................................................... 28
2.4 Hydrodynamics of Ships, Ship Motion .......................................................................... 28
2.5 Ship Structure and Strength of Ships ........................................................................... 28
2.6 Ship Design .............................................................................................................. 28
2.7 Advanced Strength of Materials, Stress-Strain Analysis .................................................. 28
2.8 Ship Definitions and Hull Resistance ............................................................................ 29
2.8.1 Flow Conditions Around the Propeller .............................................................. 41
2.8.2 Efficiencies .................................................................................................. 43
2.8.3 Propeller Dimensions and Coefficients ............................................................. 45
2.8.4 Slip Ratio and Propeller Law .......................................................................... 48
2.8.5 Propeller Law in General ............................................................................... 49
3. HULL AND SHIP CONSTRUCTION..................................................................................... 51
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 51
3.2 Terms in Ship Hull Design .......................................................................................... 51
3.3 Construction and Arrangement Details – Ship Construction ............................................. 56
3.3.1 Bow Construction ......................................................................................... 57
3.3.2 Midship Construction .................................................................................... 58
3.3.3 Double Bottom Construction .......................................................................... 593
3.3.4 Engine Room Construction ............................................................................ 60
3.3.5 Stern Construction ....................................................................................... 61
4. RUDDERS AND STEERING GEARS .................................................................................... 62
4.1 Rudders ................................................................................................................... 62
4.1.1 Semi-balanced Rudder .................................................................................. 62
4.1.2 Fully-balanced Rudder .................................................................................. 63
4.1.3 Spade Rudder .............................................................................................. 64
4.2 Special Steering Devices ............................................................................................ 64
4.2.1 The Kort Nozzle ........................................................................................... 64
4.2.2 Pleuger Rudder ............................................................................................ 65
4.2.3 The Voith Schneider Propeller ........................................................................ 65
4.2.4 Jet Flap Rudder ............................................................................................ 66
4.3 Rotating Cylinder Rudders .......................................................................................... 67
4.3.1 Schilling Rudder ........................................................................................... 68
4.4 Manoeuvrability and Stopping ..................................................................................... 69
4.5 Pumps Suitable for Steering Gear Systems ................................................................... 69
4.5.1 Hele-Shaw Pump .......................................................................................... 70
4.5.2 Variable Stroke Reversible Swashplate Pump ................................................... 71
4.5.3 Auxiliary Pump ............................................................................................ 72
4.5.4 Constant Pressure Pumps .............................................................................. 72
4.6 Rudder Carrier Bearings ............................................................................................. 73
4.6.1 Wear Down ................................................................................................. 73
4.6.2 Rudder Movement Stops ............................................................................... 73
4.6.3 Critical Profiling of Carrier Bearing .................................................................. 73
4.6.4 Steering Gear .............................................................................................. 74
4.6.5 Tele-motor Systems ..................................................................................... 74
4.6.6 Hydraulic Transmitter ................................................................................... 74
4.6.7 Electro-hydraulic Type Tele-motor System ...................................................... 76
4.6.8 Hunting Gear ............................................................................................... 76
4.7 Rudder Actuators ...................................................................................................... 77
4.7.1 Rapson Slide Actuators – Ram Type ............................................................... 77
4.7.2 Oscillating Cylinder Actuators ........................................................................ 79
4.7.3 Rams Connected to Crossheads By Links ......................................................... 79
4.8 Rotary Vane Gear ...................................................................................................... 804
4.8.1 Tendfjord Rotary Piston Gear Actuator ............................................................ 82
4.9 Components ............................................................................................................. 82
4.9.1 Relief Isolating and Bypass Valves .................................................................. 82
4.9.2 Stops and Limit Switches .............................................................................. 83
4.9.3 Drive Back Due to Heavy Seas ....................................................................... 83
4.9.4 Hand and Power Hydraulic Steering Gears ....................................................... 84
4.9.5 “Follow Up” Steering..................................................................................... 84
4.9.6 “Non-follow Up” Steering .............................................................................. 84
4.9.7 Charging a System With Fluid ........................................................................ 84
4.9.8 Steering Gear Failure .................................................................................... 84
4.9.9 Rudder Torque Calculations ........................................................................... 84
4.10 Power ...................................................................................................................... 85
4.10.1 Rudder Wear Down ...................................................................................... 85
4.10.2 Trammel ..................................................................................................... 86
4.10.3 Rudder Clearance ......................................................................................... 86
4.10.4 Steering Gear Clearance ............................................................................... 86
4.10.5 Rules .......................................................................................................... 87
4.11 Ship’s Steering Gear Testing Requirement.................................................................... 87
4.11.1 Testing in Port and Prior to Departure ............................................................. 87
4.11.2 Testing at Sea ............................................................................................. 89
4.11.3 Emergency Steering Drill............................................................................... 89
4.11.4 Electrical, Hydraulic and Mechanical Changeover Procedures ............................. 89
4.12 Rudder Arrestor Systems ........................................................................................... 89
4.12.1 Records ...................................................................................................... 90
4.12.2 Examples of Suitable System Permissible for All Ships ...................................... 90
4.13 Auxiliary Steering Gear .............................................................................................. 93
4.14 Electrical Supply........................................................................................................ 93
4.14.1 Rudders ...................................................................................................... 93
4.14.2 Rudder Restraint .......................................................................................... 93
4.14.3 Testing and Drills ......................................................................................... 93
5. MAIN ENGINES ............................................................................................................... 95
5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 95
5.2 A Brief History of Mergers and Acquisitions ................................................................... 95
5.2.1 Marine Developments ................................................................................... 965
5.2.2 Replacing the Camshaft ................................................................................ 97
5.2.3 Improving the Marine Diesel Engine ............................................................... 97
5.2.4 The Smart Diesel in Service ........................................................................... 97
5.3 Future Trends in Marine Diesel Engines ........................................................................ 98
5.3.1 Regulatory and Price Pressures ...................................................................... 98
5.3.2 An Attractive Option – Dual Fuel .................................................................. 100
5.3.3 The Right Dual-fuel Engine .......................................................................... 100
5.4 Evolution of Marine Diesel Engines – the New Generation of Diesel Engines .................... 101
5.4.1 Elements of the ME-C Engine ....................................................................... 101
5.4.2 Features of the ME-C Engine ........................................................................ 104
5.4.3 Summary .................................................................................................. 110
6. POWER GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION .................................................................. 111
6.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 111
6.2 The Main Bus Bar .................................................................................................... 111
6.3 Distribution Boards/Group Start Panels ...................................................................... 112
6.4 Emergency Switchboard ........................................................................................... 112
6.5 Composition of an Electrical Plant .............................................................................. 112
6.5.1 Alternating or Direct Current ....................................................................... 113
6.5.2 Machine Rating .......................................................................................... 113
6.5.3 Enclosures................................................................................................. 113
6.5.4 Supplying Alternating Current to a Coil ......................................................... 113
6.6 Emergency Power Supply for Ship’s Machinery Operation ............................................. 117
6.6.1 Use of Emergency Generator ....................................................................... 117
6.6.2 Emergency Generator Operation .................................................................. 117
6.7 Operational Guidance for Ship’s Electrical Plant – Insulation Resistance Measurement ...... 118
6.7.1 Electrical Insulation Tester .......................................................................... 118
6.8 Maintenance Requirement for Ship’s Electrical Equipment............................................. 119
6.8.1 Safety Precautions ..................................................................................... 120
6.8.2 Work Performance ...................................................................................... 120
6.8.3 Cold Work on Electrical Equipment ............................................................... 120
6.8.4 Hot Work on Electrical Equipment ................................................................ 120
6.8.5 High Voltage Systems (Defined here as Voltages exceeding 1,000 Volts) .......... 120
6.8.6 Work by Contractors ................................................................................... 120
6.8.7 Verification ................................................................................................ 1216
6.8.8 Circuit Breakers ......................................................................................... 121
6.8.9 Documentation .......................................................................................... 121
7. CONTROL ENGINEERING ............................................................................................... 122
7.1 Ship Automation and Control System ......................................................................... 122
7.2 Propulsion (Main Engine) and Power (Auxiliary Engines) Monitoring and Control .............. 122
7.3 Auxiliary Machinery Monitoring and Control ................................................................ 122
7.4 Cargo and Ballast Monitoring and Control ................................................................... 122
7.5 Bridge Control of Main Engines.................................................................................. 123
7.6 Three Element Boiler Feed Water Control ................................................................... 128
7.6.1 Machinery Spaces Control and Instrumentation Guideline ................................ 129
7.7 Ship’s Instruments .................................................................................................. 129
7.7.1 Oxygen Analyser Working Principle ............................................................... 129
7.7.2 The Measurement of Pressure by Manometer or a Barometer........................... 130
7.7.3 Liquid-in-glass Thermometer ....................................................................... 130
7.7.4 Level Measurement by Pneumatic Gauge ...................................................... 130
7.7.5 Salinometer – How to Determine Water Purity?.............................................. 130
7.7.6 Oil in Water Monitor ................................................................................... 130
7.8 Liquid Flow Quantity and Flow Velocity Measurement Instruments ................................. 130
7.8.1 Liquid Flow Level, Quantity and Velocity Parameters ....................................... 130
7.9 Flow Velocity Measurement ...................................................................................... 131
7.9.1 The Ventury Tube ...................................................................................... 131
7.9.2 The Orifice Plate ........................................................................................ 131
7.9.3 Moving Coil Meter ...................................................................................... 132
7.9.4 Electrical and Mechanical Tachometers.......................................................... 132
7.9.5 The Measurement of Torsion – Torsion Meters ............................................... 132
7.10 Viscosity Control of Marine Fuels ............................................................................... 132
7.10.1 Why Viscosity Control of Fuels is Essential? ................................................... 132
8. MATERIALS AND WELDING TECHNOLOGY ..................................................................... 133
8.1 Materials ................................................................................................................ 133
8.1.1 Extractive Metallurgy .................................................................................. 133
8.1.2 Mechanical Metallurgy ................................................................................. 133
8.1.3 Physical Metallurgy ..................................................................................... 134
8.1.4 Face-Centred Cubic (FCC) Structure ............................................................. 135
8.1.5 Body-Centred Cubic (BCC) Structure ............................................................ 1357
8.1.6 Close Packed Hexagonal (CPH) Structure ...................................................... 135
8.2 Crystalline Structure of Metal .................................................................................... 136
8.2.1 Polymorphism ............................................................................................ 137
8.2.2 Allotropy of Iron ......................................................................................... 137
8.3 Iron-carbon Equilibrium Diagram............................................................................... 137
8.4 Heat Treatment of Steels ......................................................................................... 139
8.4.1 Annealing Processes ................................................................................... 140
8.4.2 Full Annealing ............................................................................................ 140
8.4.3 Normalising ............................................................................................... 141
8.4.4 Spheroidising ............................................................................................. 141
8.5 Hardening Processes ................................................................................................ 141
8.5.1 Case Hardening ......................................................................................... 141
8.5.2 Quenching ................................................................................................. 142
8.5.3 Tempering................................................................................................. 142
8.5.4 Creep ....................................................................................................... 142
8.5.5 Fatigue ..................................................................................................... 144
8.5.6 Corrosion .................................................................................................. 144
8.6 Knowledge of Repairing Metal Structures and Components ........................................... 145
8.6.1 Origin of Arc Welding .................................................................................. 145
8.6.2 Gas Welding .............................................................................................. 145
8.6.3 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) ............................................................. 146
8.6.4 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) .................................................................... 147
8.6.5 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) ............................................................... 148
8.6.6 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) ................................................................... 149
8.7 Heat Treatment of Welds .......................................................................................... 153
8.7.1 Pre-heating ............................................................................................... 153
8.7.2 Post-weld Heat Treatment (Stress-Relieving) ................................................. 153
8.7.3 Weld Defects ............................................................................................. 153
8.8 Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) .......................................................................... 154
8.8.1 Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) ....................................................................... 155
8.8.2 Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) ..................................................................... 155
8.8.3 Radiographic Testing (RT) ........................................................................... 156
8.8.4 Ultrasonic Testing (UT) ............................................................................... 1578
9. REQUIREMENT OF SHIPS AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM ................................................ 158
9.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 158
9.2 Components of a Typical HVAC System ...................................................................... 159
9.2.1 Air Handling Unit ........................................................................................ 159
9.2.2 Heating/Cooling Coils ................................................................................. 160
9.2.3 Attenuators ............................................................................................... 160
9.2.4 The Fans/Blowers ....................................................................................... 160
9.2.5 Suction and Discharge Filters ....................................................................... 160
9.2.6 Humidifiers/Dehumidifiers ........................................................................... 160
9.2.7 Diffusers and Grills ..................................................................................... 160
9.3 HVAC Terms ........................................................................................................... 162
10. OTHER MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT ........................................................................... 163
10.1 Separators/Purifiers ................................................................................................. 163
10.2 S and P Flex Separation Systems .............................................................................. 163
10.2.1 Application P-Separators ............................................................................. 163
10.2.2 Application S-separators ............................................................................. 166
10.3 Air Compressors ...................................................................................................... 169
10.3.1 Types of Air Compressors ............................................................................ 169
10.3.2 Uses of Air Compressor on Ship ................................................................... 169
10.3.3 Main Air Compressor .................................................................................. 169
10.3.4 Topping Up Compressor .............................................................................. 169
10.3.5 Deck Air Compressor .................................................................................. 169
10.3.6 Emergency Air Compressor ......................................................................... 169
11. MACHINERY MANAGEMENT, DAMAGE ASSESSMENT AND REPAIR ................................. 171
11.1 The Changing Realm of Maintenance ......................................................................... 171
11.2 Maintenance Philosophies Advantages and Disadvantages ............................................ 173
11.2.1 Reactive or Breakdown Maintenance ............................................................. 173
11.2.2 Preventive Maintenance (PM) ....................................................................... 174
11.2.3 Predictive Maintenance(PdM) ....................................................................... 174
11.2.4 Proactive Maintenance ................................................................................ 176
11.2.5 Reliability Centred Maintenance ................................................................... 177
11.3 Maintenance Cost .................................................................................................... 177
11.3.1 Causes of Structural Damage Through Cargo Handling – Critical Inspection ....... 1799
11.3.2 Inspection of Oil Tanker Cargo Tanks ............................................................ 180
11.3.3 Tank Inspection Safety Precautions .............................................................. 180
11.3.4 Inspection of Oil Tanker Cargo Tanks ............................................................ 181
11.4 Damage Control ...................................................................................................... 182
11.4.1 Emergency Lockers .................................................................................... 183
11.4.2 Duties of Emergency Squad ......................................................................... 183
11.4.3 Assessment and Reporting Damage .............................................................. 183
11.4.4 Emergency Repairs..................................................................................... 183
11.4.5 Damage Control Repair Bags ....................................................................... 183
11.4.6 Shoring ..................................................................................................... 184
11.4.7 First Aid Station ......................................................................................... 184
11.4.8 Emergency Communications ........................................................................ 184
11.4.9 Watertight Integrity .................................................................................... 184
11.4.10 Making Entry Into a Closed Compartment ..................................................... 184
11.4.11 Closing and Opening Watertight Doors .......................................................... 184
11.5 Summary ............................................................................................................... 185
Glossary .................................................................................................................................. 186
References ............................................................................................................................... 210
Appendix 1 - Typical Checklist for Annual Surveys on Passenger Ships ............................................ 211
Appendix 2 - List of Certificates Required On Board Ship Relating to Harmonised System of Survey
and Certification (Some Depend on the Type of Ship) ................................................. 221
Appendix 3 – Annual Survey Sample Checklist ............................................................................. 224
Appendix 4 – International Safety Management Code .................................................................... 228
Appendix 5 – SOLAS, MARPOL Amendments Entered Into Force on 1 January 2014 .......................... 235

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Rating: 5 / 5 (Votes: 22)
Reply
mmh ® 02-Nov-2019 17:26
Hi Arcan,
Could you please explain in a simple English, what do you mean by that.
I really did not understand what you are trying to say.
Cheers!!!
0
Reply
mmh ® 05-Nov-2019 21:10
Hi Arkan,
I was busy last couple of days.
Thanks for the video.
Way forward, am I allowed to edit the post now or I have to redo the whole process ie release again those 5 books.
Cheers!!!
0
Reply
GOOGLE BOT 05-Nov-2019 21:10
 

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