mivanic11 ® 04-Oct-2016 13:46

Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ships and in Terminals 3th Edition


Year: 2000
Language: english
Author: McGUlRE and WHITE
Publisher: SIGTTO
Format: PDF
Quality: eBook
Description: Third Edition April 2000. Written primarily for serving ship's officers and terminal operational staff who are responsible for cargo handling operations, or for personnel who are about to be placed in positions covering these duties. Consideration is given to the whole range of liquefied gases including LNG, LPG and the chemical gases.

Contents

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION iv
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION iv
PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vi
FIGURES AND TABLES xiii
DEFINITIONS xvi
EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS xxv
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Liquefied gases 1
1.2 Liquefied gas production 2
1.2.1 LNG production 3
1.2.2 LPG production 5
1.2.3 Production of chemical gases 6
1.2.4 The principal products 7
1.3 Types of gas carriers 9
1.4 The ship/shore interface and jetty standards 12
1.4.1 Safe jetty designs 12
1.4.2 Jetty operations 12
CHAPTER 2 PROPERTIES OF LIQUEFIED GASES 14
2.1 Chemical structure of gases 14
2.2 Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons 16
2.3 The chemical gases 18
2.4 Chemical properties 19
2.5 Inert gas and nitrogen 23
2.6 Polymerisation 25
2.7 Hydrate formation 27
2.8 Lubrication 27
2.9 Physical properties 28
2.10 States of matter 28
2.10.1 Solids, liquids and gases 28
2.10.2 Spillage of liquefied gas 31
2.11 Principles of refrigeration 31
2.12 Critical temperatures and pressures 33
Page No.
2.13 Liquid/vapour volume relationships 33
2.14 Ideal gas laws 33
2.15 Saturated vapour pressure 36
2.16 Liquid and vapour densities 40
2.16.1 Liquid density 40
2.16.2 Vapour density 41
2.17 Physical properties of gas mixtures 42
2.18 Bubble points and dew points for mixtures 43
2.19 Reliquefaction and enthalpy 45
2.19.1 Enthalpy 45
2.19.2 Refrigeration 45
2.20 Flammability 47
2.21 Suppression of flammability by inert gas 51
2.22 Sources of ignition 52
CHAPTER 3 PRINCIPLES OF GAS CARRIER DESIGN 55
3.1 Design standards and ship types 55
3.1.1 The gas carrier codes 55
3.2 Cargo containment systems 56
3.2.1 Independent tanks 57
3.2.2 Membrane tanks 60
3.2.3 Semi-membrane tanks 63
3.2.4 Integral tanks 64
3.2.5 Internal insulation tanks 64
3.3 Materials of construction and insulation 64
3.3.1 Construction materials 64
3.3.2 Tank insulation 64
3.4 Gas carrier types 65
3.4.1 Fully pressurised ships 66
3.4.2 Semi-pressurised ships 66
3.4.3 Ethylene ships 67
3.4.4 Fully refrigerated ships 67
3.4.5 LNG ships 68
3.5 Gas carrier layout 68
3.6 Survival capability 70
3.7 Surveys and certification 70
3.7.1 Certificate of fitness 70
3.7.2 Other certification 71
CHAPTER 4 THE SHIP — EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION 72
4.1 Cargo pipelines and valves 72
4.1.1 Cargo pipelines 72
4.1.2 Cargo valves and strainers 73
4.1.3 Emergency shut-down (ESD) systems 74
4.1.4 Relief valves for cargo tanks and pipelines 74
4.2 Cargo pumps 76
4.3 Cargo heaters 83
4.4 Cargo vaporisers 84
4.5 Reliquefaction plants and boil-off control 84
4.5.1 Indirect cycles 84
4.5.2 Direct cycles 85
4.6 Cargo compressors and associated equipment 91
4.6.1 Reciprocating compressors 89
4.6.2 Screw compressors 91
Page No.
4.6.3 Compressor suction liquid separator 92
4.6.4 Purge gas condenser 92
4.6.5 LNG boil-off and vapour-handling systems 93
4.7 Inert gas and nitrogen systems 93
4.7.1 Inert gas generators 94
4.7.2 Nitrogen production on ships 97
4.7.3 Pure nitrogen from the shore 97
4.8 Electrical equipment in gas dangerous spaces 98
4.9 Instrumentation 99
4.9.1 Liquid level instrumentation 99
4.9.2 Level alarm and automatic shut-down systems 104
4.9.3 Pressure and temperature monitoring 104
4.9.4 Gas detection systems 105
4.9.5 LNG custody transfer systems 105
4.9.6 Integrated systems 106
4.9.7 Calibration 106
CHAPTER 5 THE TERMINAL — EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION 107
5.1 Cargo transfer systems 107
5.1.1 Hoses 107
5.1.2 Hard arms (loading arms) 108
5.1.3 Vapour return 112
5.1.4 Insulating flanges 114
5.2 Shore storage 114
5.2.1 Pressurised storage at ambient temperature 114
5.2.2 Storage in semi-pressurised spheres 118
5.2.3 Refrigerated storage at atmospheric pressure 119
5.2.4 Construction materials and design 124
5.3 Ancillary equipment 125
5.3.1 Pressure relief venting 125
5.3.2 Pipelines and valves 125
5.3.3 Pumps, compressors and heat exchangers 127
5.4 Instrumentation 130
5.4.1 Product metering 130
5.4.2 Pressure, temperature and level instrumentation 133
5.4.3 Gas detection systems 133
5.5 Fire-fighting 133
5.5.1 Water 134
5.5.2 Foam 134
5.5.3 Dry chemical powders 134
5.5.4 Carbon dioxide (CO2) systems 135
5.5.5 Halon replacements 135
5.5.6 Inspection, maintenance and training 136
CHAPTER 6 THE SHIP/SHORE INTERFACE 137
6.1 Supervision and control 137
6.2 Design considerations 139
6.2.1 The terminal 139
6.2.2 The ship 139
6.3 Communications 140
6.3.1 Prior to charter 140
6.3.2 Prior to arrival 140
6.3.3 Alongside the jetty 141
6.4 Discussions prior to cargo transfer 141
Page No.
6.5 Ship/Shore safety check list 142
6.6 Operational considerations 143
6.6.1 Berthing and mooring 143
6.6.2 Connection and disconnection of cargo hoses and hard arms 144
6.6.3 Cargo tank atmospheres 144
6.6.4 Cargo handling procedures 145
6.6.5 Cargo surveyors 145
6.6.6 Gangways and ship security 146
6.6.7 Bunkering 146
6.6.8 Work permits 147
6.7 Fire-fighting and safety 147
6.8 Linked Emergency shut-down systems 148
6.9 Terminal booklet—Information and Regulation 149
6.10 Training 150
CHAPTER 7 CARGO HANDLING OPERATIONS 151
7.1 Sequence of operations 151
7.2 Tank inspection, drying and inerting 152
7.2.1 Tank inspection 152
7.2.2 Drying 152
7.2.3 Inerting—before loading 153
7.3 Gassing-up 156
7.3.1 Gassing-up at sea using liquid from deck storage tanks 157
7.3.2 Gassing-up alongside 157
7.4 Cool-down 159
7.5 Loading 161
7.5.1 Loading—preliminary procedures 161
7.5.2 Control of vapours during loading 163
7.5.3 Loading—early stages 164
7.5.4 Bulk loading 166
7.5.5 Cargo tank loading limits 167
7.6 The loaded voyage 170
7.6.1 Operation of the reliquefaction plant 172
7.6.2 LNG boil-off as fuel 173
7.7 Discharging 173
7.7.1 Discharge by pressurising the vapour space 174
7.7.2 Discharge by pumps 174
7.7.3 Discharge via booster pump and cargo heater 178
7.7.4 Draining tanks and pipelines 179
7.8 The ballast voyage 179
7.9 Changing cargo (and preparation for drydock) 180
7.9.1 Removal of remaining liquid 181
7.9.2 Warming-up 182
7.9.3 Inerting—after discharge 183
7.9.4 Aerating 184
7.9.5 Ammonia—special procedures 185
7.10 Ship-to-ship transfer 186
7.11 Conclusion 186
CHAPTER 8 CARGO MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION 187
8.1 Principles for liquefied gases 187
8.1.1 Special practices for gas cargoes 187
8.1.2 General. Density in air and density in vacuum 188
Page No.
8.1.3 True density (apparent density) 189
8.1.4 Relative density (specific gravity) 189
8.1.5 Apparent relative density (apparent specific gravity) 190
8.1.6 LNG quantification 194
8.1.7 Shore measurement versus ship measurement 191
8.2 Measurement of cargo tank volumes 192
8.2.1 Trim correction 192
8.2.2 List correction 193
8.2.3 Tape correction 193
8.2.4 Float correction 194
8.2.5 Tank shell contraction and expansion 194
8.3 Measurement of density 194
8.3.1 Density measurement methods 194
8.3.2 Units of density 195
8.4 Ship/shore calculation procedures 195
8.4.1 Outline of weight-in-air calculation 195
8.4.2 Procedures using standard temperature 196
8.4.3 Procedure using dynamic flow measurement 197
8.5 Example — cargo calculation 198
8.6 Other calculation procedures and measurement units 199
8.7 Cargo documentation 199
CHAPTER 9 PERSONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY 202
9.1 Cargo hazards 202
9.2 Flammability 205
9.2.1 Operational aspects 205
9.2.2 Emergency aspects 205
9.3 Air deficiency 205
9.3.1 Toxicity 205
9.3.2 Asphyxia (suffocation) 207
9.3.3 Medical treatment 208
9.3.4 Oxygen therapy 209
9.4 Frostbite 210
9.5 Chemical burns 211
9.6 Transport to hospital 212
9.7 Hazardous atmospheres 212
9.7.1 The need for gas testing 212
9.7.2 Oxygen analysers 213
9.7.3 Combustible gas indicators 215
9.7.4 Toxicity detectors 217
9.8 Entry into enclosed spaces 218
9.8.1 Precautions for tank entry 218
9.8.2 Procedures 219
9.8.3 Rescue from enclosed spaces 220
9.9 Personal protection 220
9.9.1 Breathing apparatus 220
9.9.2 Protective clothing 222
CHAPTER10 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 223
10.1 The principal hazards 223
10.1.1 Flammability 223
10.1.2 Vaporisation of spilled liquid 224
10.1.3 Toxicity and toxic products of combustion 230
10.1.4 Frostbite 224
10.1.5 Brittle fracture 224
Page No.
10.2 Liquefied gas fires 224
10.2.1 Fire detection 225
10.2.2 Jet fires 225
10.2.3 Liquid (pool) fires 225
10.2.4 Fires in compressor rooms 226
10.3 Liquefied gas fire-fighting 227
10.3.1 Alarm procedures 227
10.3.2 Extinguishing mediums 227
10.3.3 Training 229
10.4 Emergency procedures 229
10.4.1 The emergency plan 229
10.4.2 Ship emergency procedures 230
10.4.3 Terminal emergency procedures 231
10.5 Emergency release and emergency shut-down 232
10.5.1 Emergency shut-down (ESD) —ship/shore links 232
10.5.2 Emergency release systems (ERS) 232
10.6 Removal of ship from berth 233
10.7 Ship-to-ship cargo transfer 233
APPENDIX 1 References 234
APPENDIX 2 Liquefied and Chemical Gases Covered by the IGC Code 237
APPENDIX 3 Ship/Shore Safety Check List 239
INDEX 260
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